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      Amniotic fluid stem cells improve survival and enhance repair of damaged intestine in necrotising enterocolitis via a COX-2 dependent mechanism

      Gut

      BMJ

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          Most cited references 42

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          A chemical method for fast and sensitive detection of DNA synthesis in vivo.

          We have developed a method to detect DNA synthesis in proliferating cells, based on the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and its subsequent detection by a fluorescent azide through a Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction ("click" chemistry). Detection of the EdU label is highly sensitive and can be accomplished in minutes. The small size of the fluorescent azides used for detection results in a high degree of specimen penetration, allowing the staining of whole-mount preparations of large tissue and organ explants. In contrast to BrdU, the method does not require sample fixation or DNA denaturation and permits good structural preservation. We demonstrate the use of the method in cultured cells and in the intestine and brain of whole animals.
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            Celecoxib for the prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas.

            Studies showing that drugs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) reduce the number of colorectal adenomas in animals and patients with familial adenomatous polyposis suggest that COX-2 inhibitors may also prevent sporadic colorectal neoplasia. We randomly assigned patients who had adenomas removed before study entry to receive placebo (679 patients) or 200 mg (685 patients) or 400 mg (671 patients) of celecoxib twice daily. Randomization was stratified for the use of low-dose aspirin. Follow-up colonoscopies were performed at one and three years after randomization. The occurrence of newly detected colorectal adenomas was compared among the groups with the life-table extension of the Mantel-Haenszel test. Follow-up colonoscopies were completed at year 1 in 89.5 percent of randomized patients, and at year 3 in 75.7 percent. The estimated cumulative incidence of the detection of one or more adenomas by year 3 was 60.7 percent for patients receiving placebo, as compared with 43.2 percent for those receiving 200 mg of celecoxib twice a day (risk ratio, 0.67; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.59 to 0.77; P<0.001) and 37.5 percent for those receiving 400 mg of celecoxib twice a day (risk ratio, 0.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.64; P<0.001). Serious adverse events occurred in 18.8 percent of patients in the placebo group, as compared with 20.4 percent of those in the low-dose celecoxib group (risk ratio, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.3; P=0.5) and 23.0 percent of those in the high-dose group (risk ratio, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.5; P=0.06). As compared with placebo, celecoxib was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (risk ratio for the low dose, 2.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.1; and risk ratio for the high dose, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 7.9). These findings indicate that celecoxib is an effective agent for the prevention of colorectal adenomas but, because of potential cardiovascular events, cannot be routinely recommended for this indication. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00005094 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Inducible cyclooxygenase may have anti-inflammatory properties.

              Cyclooxygenase (COX) has two isoforms. Generally, COX 1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, where it maintains physiological processes; inducible COX 2 is considered a pro-inflammatory enzyme and a chief target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here we present evidence that COX 2 may have anti-inflammatory properties. In carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats, the predominant cells at 2 hours are polymorphonuclear leucocytes, whereas mononuclear cells dominate from 24 hours until resolution at 48 hours. In this model, COX 2 protein expression peaked initially at 2 hours, associated with maximal prostaglandin E2 synthesis. However, at 48 hours there was a second increase in COX 2 expression, 350% greater than that at 2 hours. Paradoxically, this coincided with inflammatory resolution and was associated with minimal prostaglandin E2 synthesis. In contrast, levels of prostaglandin D2, and 15deoxy delta(12-14)prostaglandin J2 were high at 2 hours, decreased as inflammation increased, but were increased again at 48 hours. The selective COX 2 inhibitor NS-398 and the dual COX 1/COX 2 inhibitor indomethacin inhibited inflammation at 2 hours but significantly exacerbated inflammation at 48 hours. This exacerbation was associated with reduced exudate prostaglandin D2 and 15deoxy delta(12-14)prostaglandin J2 concentrations, and was reversed by replacement of these prostaglandins. Thus, COX 2 may be pro-inflammatory during the early phase of a carrageenin-induced pleurisy, dominated by polymorphonuclear leucocytes, but may aid resolution at the later, mononuclear cell-dominated phase by generating an alternative set of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins.
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                10.1136/gutjnl-2012-303735

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