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      Cell-cycle dynamics of chromosomal organization at single-cell resolution

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          Abstract

          Summary Chromosomes in proliferating metazoan cells undergo dramatic structural metamorphoses every cell cycle, alternating between highly condensed mitotic structures facilitating chromosome segregation, and decondensed interphase structures accommodating transcription, gene silencing and DNA replication. Here we use single-cell Hi-C to study chromosome conformations in thousands of individual cells, and discover a continuum of cis-interaction profiles that finely position individual cells along the cell cycle. We show that chromosomal compartments, topological associated domains (TADs), contact insulation and long-range loops, all defined by bulk Hi-C maps, are governed by distinct cell-cycle dynamics. In particular, DNA replication correlates with build-up of compartments and reduction in TAD insulation, while loops are generally stable from G1 through S and G2. Whole-genome 3D structural models reveal a radial architecture of chromosomal compartments with distinct epigenomic signatures. Our single-cell data thereby allow for re-interpretation of chromosome conformation maps through the prism of the cell cycle.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Molecular maps of the reorganization of genome-nuclear lamina interactions during differentiation.

          The three-dimensional organization of chromosomes within the nucleus and its dynamics during differentiation are largely unknown. To visualize this process in molecular detail, we generated high-resolution maps of genome-nuclear lamina interactions during subsequent differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells via lineage-committed neural precursor cells into terminally differentiated astrocytes. This reveals that a basal chromosome architecture present in embryonic stem cells is cumulatively altered at hundreds of sites during lineage commitment and subsequent terminal differentiation. This remodeling involves both individual transcription units and multigene regions and affects many genes that determine cellular identity. Often, genes that move away from the lamina are concomitantly activated; many others, however, remain inactive yet become unlocked for activation in a next differentiation step. These results suggest that lamina-genome interactions are widely involved in the control of gene expression programs during lineage commitment and terminal differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Organization of the mitotic chromosome.

            Mitotic chromosomes are among the most recognizable structures in the cell, yet for over a century their internal organization remains largely unsolved. We applied chromosome conformation capture methods, 5C and Hi-C, across the cell cycle and revealed two distinct three-dimensional folding states of the human genome. We show that the highly compartmentalized and cell type-specific organization described previously for nonsynchronous cells is restricted to interphase. In metaphase, we identified a homogenous folding state that is locus-independent, common to all chromosomes, and consistent among cell types, suggesting a general principle of metaphase chromosome organization. Using polymer simulations, we found that metaphase Hi-C data are inconsistent with classic hierarchical models and are instead best described by a linearly organized longitudinally compressed array of consecutive chromatin loops.
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              Is Open Access

              An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE)

              To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                July 2017
                July 6 2017
                July 2017
                : 547
                : 7661
                : 61-67
                Article
                10.1038/nature23001
                5567812
                28682332
                © 2017

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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