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      Prevalência da violência contra a mulher por parceiro íntimo em regiões do Brasil

      Revista de Saúde Pública

      Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo

      Estudos transversais, Battered women, Violence against women, Spouse abuse, Domestic violence, Cross-sectional studies, Mulheres maltratadas, Violência contra a mulher, Maus-tratos conjugais, Violência doméstica

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          Abstract

          OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados do WHO Multi-country Study on Women´s Health and Domestic Violence sobre a prevalência da violência contra mulheres por parceiros íntimos encontrada no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal integrante do WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence against women, realizado em dez países, entre 2000-2003. Em todos os locais foi utilizado questionário estruturado padronizado, construído para o estudo. Para conhecer contrastes internos a cada país, a maior cidade e uma região rural foram investigadas, sempre que factível. Foi selecionada amostra representativa da cidade de São Paulo e de 15 municípios da Zona da Mata de Pernambuco constituída por mulheres de 15 a 49 anos de idade. Foram incluídas 940 mulheres de São Paulo e 1.188 de Pernambuco, que tiveram parceria afetivo-sexual alguma vez na vida. A violência foi classificada nos tipos psicológica, física e sexual, sendo analisadas suas sobreposições, recorrência dos episódios, gravidade e época de ocorrência. RESULTADOS: Mulheres de São Paulo e Pernambuco relataram, respectivamente, ao menos uma vez na vida: violência psicológica (N=383; 41,8% e N=580; 48,9%), física (266; 27,2% e 401; 33,7%); sexual (95; 10,1% e 170; 14,3%). Houve sobreposição dos tipos de violência, que parece associada às formas mais graves de violência. A maior taxa da forma exclusiva foi, para São Paulo e Pernambuco, a da violência psicológica (N=164; 17,5% e N=206; 17,3%) e a menor da violência sexual (N=2;0,2% e 12; 1,0%) CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram a violência como um fenômeno de alta freqüência. Os achados reiteram estudos internacionais anteriores quanto à grande magnitude e superposições das violências por parceiro íntimo.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Intimate partner violence: causes and prevention.

           Rachel Jewkes (2002)
          Unlike many health problems, there are few social and demographic characteristics that define risk groups for intimate partner violence. Poverty is the exception and increases risk through effects on conflict, women's power, and male identity. Violence is used as a strategy in conflict. Relationships full of conflict, and especially those in which conflicts occur about finances, jealousy, and women's gender role transgressions are more violent than peaceful relationships. Heavy alcohol consumption also increases risk of violence. Women who are more empowered educationally, economically, and socially are most protected, but below this high level the relation between empowerment and risk of violence is non-linear. Violence is frequently used to resolve a crisis of male identity, at times caused by poverty or an inability to control women. Risk of violence is greatest in societies where the use of violence in many situations is a socially-accepted norm. Primary preventive interventions should focus on improving the status of women and reducing norms of violence, poverty, and alcohol consumption.
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            Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

            An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences.
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              Risk factors for domestic violence: findings from a South African cross-sectional study.

              In 1998 a cross-sectional study of violence against women was undertaken in three provinces of South Africa. The objectives were to measure the prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional abuse of women, to identify risk factors and associated health problems and health service use. A multi-stage sampling design was used with clusters sampled with probability proportional to number of households and households were randomly selected from within clusters. One randomly selected woman aged 18-49 years was interviewed in each selected home. Interviews were held with a total 1306 women, the response rate was 90.3% of eligible women. For the risk factor analysis, multiple logistic regression models were fitted from a large pool of candidate explanatory variables, while allowing for sampling design and interviewer effects. The lifetime prevalence of experiencing physical violence from a current or ex-husband or boyfriend was 24.6%, and 9.5% had been assaulted in the previous year. Domestic violence was significantly positively associated with violence in her childhood, her having no further education, liberal ideas on women's roles, drinking alcohol, having another partner in the year, having a confidant(e), his boy child preference, conflict over his drinking, either partner financially supporting the home, frequent conflict generally, and living outside the Northern Province. No significant associations were found with partners' ages, employment, migrant status, financial disparity, cohabitation, household possessions, urbanisation, marital status, crowding, communication, his having other partners, his education, her attitudes towards violence or her perceptions of cultural norms on women's role. The findings suggest that domestic violence is most strongly related to the status of women in a society and to the normative use of violence in conflict situations or as part of the exercise of power. We conclude by discussing implications for developing theory on causal factors in domestic violence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                S0034-89102007000500014
                10.1590/S0034-89102007000500014

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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