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      Moderate expansion of a normally biallelic trinucleotide repeat in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2

      Nature genetics

      Springer Nature

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          Expansion of an unstable trinucleotide CAG repeat in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

          Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the cerebellum, spinal cord and brainstem. A 1.2-Megabase stretch of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 6 containing the SCA1 locus was isolated in a yeast artificial chromosome contig and subcloned into cosmids. A highly polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in this region and was found to be unstable and expanded in individuals with SCA1. There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age-of-onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases. We also show that the repeat is present in a 10 kilobase mRNA transcript. SCA1 is therefore the fifth genetic disorder to display a mutational mechanism involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat.
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            Molecular basis of myotonic dystrophy: Expansion of a trinucleotide (CTG) repeat at the 3′ end of a transcript encoding a protein kinase family member

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              Improved nearest-neighbor parameters for predicting DNA duplex stability.

              Thermodynamic data were determined from UV absorbance vs temperature profiles of 23 oligonucleotides. These data were combined with data from the literature for 21 sequences to derive improved parameters for the 10 Watson-Crick nearest neighbors. The observed trend in nearest-neighbor stabilities at 37 degrees C is GC > CG > GG > GA approximately GT approximately CA > CT > AA > AT > TA (where only the top strand is shown for each nearest neighbor). This trend suggests that both sequence and base composition are important determinants of DNA duplex stability. On average, the improved parameters predict deltaG degrees(37), deltaH degrees, deltaS degrees, and T(m) within 4%, 7%, 8%, and 2 degrees C, respectively. The parameters are optimized for the prediction of oligonucleotides dissolved in 1 M NaC1.
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                Journal
                10.1038/ng1196-269

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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