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      Integrating single-cell transcriptomic data across different conditions, technologies, and species

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      Nature Biotechnology
      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Computational single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) methods have been successfully applied to experiments representing a single condition, technology, or species to discover and define cellular phenotypes. However, identifying subpopulations of cells that are present across multiple data sets remains challenging. Here, we introduce an analytical strategy for integrating scRNA-seq data sets based on common sources of variation, enabling the identification of shared populations across data sets and downstream comparative analysis. We apply this approach, implemented in our R toolkit Seurat (http://satijalab.org/seurat/), to align scRNA-seq data sets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells under resting and stimulated conditions, hematopoietic progenitors sequenced using two profiling technologies, and pancreatic cell 'atlases' generated from human and mouse islets. In each case, we learn distinct or transitional cell states jointly across data sets, while boosting statistical power through integrated analysis. Our approach facilitates general comparisons of scRNA-seq data sets, potentially deepening our understanding of how distinct cell states respond to perturbation, disease, and evolution.

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          Most cited references26

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          Comparative Analysis of Single-Cell RNA Sequencing Methods.

          Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) offers new possibilities to address biological and medical questions. However, systematic comparisons of the performance of diverse scRNA-seq protocols are lacking. We generated data from 583 mouse embryonic stem cells to evaluate six prominent scRNA-seq methods: CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, SCRB-seq, Smart-seq, and Smart-seq2. While Smart-seq2 detected the most genes per cell and across cells, CEL-seq2, Drop-seq, MARS-seq, and SCRB-seq quantified mRNA levels with less amplification noise due to the use of unique molecular identifiers (UMIs). Power simulations at different sequencing depths showed that Drop-seq is more cost-efficient for transcriptome quantification of large numbers of cells, while MARS-seq, SCRB-seq, and Smart-seq2 are more efficient when analyzing fewer cells. Our quantitative comparison offers the basis for an informed choice among six prominent scRNA-seq methods, and it provides a framework for benchmarking further improvements of scRNA-seq protocols.
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            A Single-Cell Transcriptomic Map of the Human and Mouse Pancreas Reveals Inter- and Intra-cell Population Structure.

            Although the function of the mammalian pancreas hinges on complex interactions of distinct cell types, gene expression profiles have primarily been described with bulk mixtures. Here we implemented a droplet-based, single-cell RNA-seq method to determine the transcriptomes of over 12,000 individual pancreatic cells from four human donors and two mouse strains. Cells could be divided into 15 clusters that matched previously characterized cell types: all endocrine cell types, including rare epsilon-cells; exocrine cell types; vascular cells; Schwann cells; quiescent and activated stellate cells; and four types of immune cells. We detected subpopulations of ductal cells with distinct expression profiles and validated their existence with immuno-histochemistry stains. Moreover, among human beta- cells, we detected heterogeneity in the regulation of genes relating to functional maturation and levels of ER stress. Finally, we deconvolved bulk gene expression samples using the single-cell data to detect disease-associated differential expression. Our dataset provides a resource for the discovery of novel cell type-specific transcription factors, signaling receptors, and medically relevant genes.
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              A penalized matrix decomposition, with applications to sparse principal components and canonical correlation analysis.

              We present a penalized matrix decomposition (PMD), a new framework for computing a rank-K approximation for a matrix. We approximate the matrix X as circumflexX = sigma(k=1)(K) d(k)u(k)v(k)(T), where d(k), u(k), and v(k) minimize the squared Frobenius norm of X - circumflexX, subject to penalties on u(k) and v(k). This results in a regularized version of the singular value decomposition. Of particular interest is the use of L(1)-penalties on u(k) and v(k), which yields a decomposition of X using sparse vectors. We show that when the PMD is applied using an L(1)-penalty on v(k) but not on u(k), a method for sparse principal components results. In fact, this yields an efficient algorithm for the "SCoTLASS" proposal (Jolliffe and others 2003) for obtaining sparse principal components. This method is demonstrated on a publicly available gene expression data set. We also establish connections between the SCoTLASS method for sparse principal component analysis and the method of Zou and others (2006). In addition, we show that when the PMD is applied to a cross-products matrix, it results in a method for penalized canonical correlation analysis (CCA). We apply this penalized CCA method to simulated data and to a genomic data set consisting of gene expression and DNA copy number measurements on the same set of samples.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Biotechnology
                Nat Biotechnol
                Springer Nature
                1087-0156
                1546-1696
                April 2 2018
                April 2 2018
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nbt.4096
                6700744
                29608179
                00018093-161a-45d3-854a-38a5594ccd1f
                © 2018
                History

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