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      Integrating single-cell transcriptomic data across different conditions, technologies, and species

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      Nature Biotechnology

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          Computational single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) methods have been successfully applied to experiments representing a single condition, technology, or species to discover and define cellular phenotypes. However, identifying subpopulations of cells that are present across multiple data sets remains challenging. Here, we introduce an analytical strategy for integrating scRNA-seq data sets based on common sources of variation, enabling the identification of shared populations across data sets and downstream comparative analysis. We apply this approach, implemented in our R toolkit Seurat (http://satijalab.org/seurat/), to align scRNA-seq data sets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells under resting and stimulated conditions, hematopoietic progenitors sequenced using two profiling technologies, and pancreatic cell 'atlases' generated from human and mouse islets. In each case, we learn distinct or transitional cell states jointly across data sets, while boosting statistical power through integrated analysis. Our approach facilitates general comparisons of scRNA-seq data sets, potentially deepening our understanding of how distinct cell states respond to perturbation, disease, and evolution.

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          Most cited references 62

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          limma powers differential expression analyses for RNA-sequencing and microarray studies

          limma is an R/Bioconductor software package that provides an integrated solution for analysing data from gene expression experiments. It contains rich features for handling complex experimental designs and for information borrowing to overcome the problem of small sample sizes. Over the past decade, limma has been a popular choice for gene discovery through differential expression analyses of microarray and high-throughput PCR data. The package contains particularly strong facilities for reading, normalizing and exploring such data. Recently, the capabilities of limma have been significantly expanded in two important directions. First, the package can now perform both differential expression and differential splicing analyses of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. All the downstream analysis tools previously restricted to microarray data are now available for RNA-seq as well. These capabilities allow users to analyse both RNA-seq and microarray data with very similar pipelines. Second, the package is now able to go past the traditional gene-wise expression analyses in a variety of ways, analysing expression profiles in terms of co-regulated sets of genes or in terms of higher-order expression signatures. This provides enhanced possibilities for biological interpretation of gene expression differences. This article reviews the philosophy and design of the limma package, summarizing both new and historical features, with an emphasis on recent enhancements and features that have not been previously described.
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            Adjusting batch effects in microarray expression data using empirical Bayes methods.

            Non-biological experimental variation or "batch effects" are commonly observed across multiple batches of microarray experiments, often rendering the task of combining data from these batches difficult. The ability to combine microarray data sets is advantageous to researchers to increase statistical power to detect biological phenomena from studies where logistical considerations restrict sample size or in studies that require the sequential hybridization of arrays. In general, it is inappropriate to combine data sets without adjusting for batch effects. Methods have been proposed to filter batch effects from data, but these are often complicated and require large batch sizes ( > 25) to implement. Because the majority of microarray studies are conducted using much smaller sample sizes, existing methods are not sufficient. We propose parametric and non-parametric empirical Bayes frameworks for adjusting data for batch effects that is robust to outliers in small sample sizes and performs comparable to existing methods for large samples. We illustrate our methods using two example data sets and show that our methods are justifiable, easy to apply, and useful in practice. Software for our method is freely available at: http://biosun1.harvard.edu/complab/batch/.
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              Highly Parallel Genome-wide Expression Profiling of Individual Cells Using Nanoliter Droplets.

              Cells, the basic units of biological structure and function, vary broadly in type and state. Single-cell genomics can characterize cell identity and function, but limitations of ease and scale have prevented its broad application. Here we describe Drop-seq, a strategy for quickly profiling thousands of individual cells by separating them into nanoliter-sized aqueous droplets, associating a different barcode with each cell's RNAs, and sequencing them all together. Drop-seq analyzes mRNA transcripts from thousands of individual cells simultaneously while remembering transcripts' cell of origin. We analyzed transcriptomes from 44,808 mouse retinal cells and identified 39 transcriptionally distinct cell populations, creating a molecular atlas of gene expression for known retinal cell classes and novel candidate cell subtypes. Drop-seq will accelerate biological discovery by enabling routine transcriptional profiling at single-cell resolution. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Biotechnology
                Nat Biotechnol
                Springer Nature
                1087-0156
                1546-1696
                April 2 2018
                April 2 2018
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nbt.4096
                6700744
                29608179
                © 2018
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