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      Anatomical variation of superior petrosal vein and its management during surgery for cerebellopontine angle meningiomas

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          Abstract

          No systematic study is yet available that focuses on the surgical anatomy of the superior petrosal vein and its significance during surgery for cerebellopontine angle meningiomas. The aim of the present study was to examine the variation of the superior petrosal vein via the retrosigmoid suboccipital approach in relation to the tumor attachment of cerebellopontine angle meningiomas as well as postoperative complications related to venous occlusion. Forty-three patients with cerebellopontine angle meningiomas were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the operative findings, the tumors were classified into four subtypes: the petroclival type, tentorial type, anterior petrous type, and posterior petrous type. According to a previous anatomical report, the superior petrosal veins were divided into three groups: Type I which emptied into the superior petrosal sinus above and lateral to the internal acoustic meatus, Type II which emptied between the lateral limit of the trigeminal nerve at Meckel’s cave and the medial limit of the facial nerve at the internal acoustic meatus, and Type III which emptied into the superior petrosal sinus above and medial to Meckel’s cave. In both the petroclival and anterior petrous types, the most common vein was Type III which is the ideal vein for a retrosigmoid approach. In contrast, the Type II vein which is at high risk of being sacrificed during a suprameatal approach procedure was most frequent in posterior petrous type, in which the superior petrosal vein was not largely an obstacle. Intraoperative sacrificing of veins was associated with a significantly higher rate of venous-related phenomena, while venous complications occurred even in cases where the superior petrosal vein was absent or compressed by the tumor. The variation in the superior petrosal vein appeared to differ among the tumor attachment subtypes, which could permit a satisfactory surgical exposure without dividing the superior petrosal vein. In cases where the superior petrosal vein was previously occluded, other bridging veins could correspond with implications for the crucial venous drainage system, and should thus be identified and protected whenever possible.

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          Most cited references10

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          Microsurgical anatomy of the veins of the posterior fossa.

          The microsurgical anatomy of the veins of the posterior fossa was defined in 25 cadavers. These veins are divided into four groups: superficial, deep, brain-stem, and bridging veins. The superficial veins are divided on the basis of which of the three cortical surfaces they drain: the tentorial surface, which faces the tentorium and is exposed in a supracerebellar approach, is drained by the superior hemispheric and vermian veins; the suboccipital surface, which is below and between the lateral and sigmoid sinuses and is exposed in a wide suboccipital craniectomy, is drained by the inferior hemispheric and inferior vermian veins; and the petrosal surface, which faces forward toward the posterior surface of the petrous bone and is retracted to expose the cerebellopontine angle, is drained by the anterior hemispheric veins. The deep veins course in the three fissures between the cerebellum and the brain stem, and on the three cerebellar peduncles. The major deep veins in the fissures between the cerebellum and brain stem are the veins of the cerebellomesencephalic, cerebellomedullary, and cerebellopontine fissures, and those on the cerebellar peduncles are the veins of the superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles. The veins of the brain stem are named on the basis of whether they drain the midbrain, pons, or medulla. The veins of the posterior fossa terminate as bridging veins, which collect into three groups: a galenic group which drains into the vein of Galen; a petrosal group which drains into the petrosal sinuses; and a tentorial group which drains into the tentorial sinuses near the torcula.
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            Retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal approach to Meckel's cave and the middle fossa: surgical technique and outcome.

            The goal of this study was to determine whether some petroclival tumors can be safely and efficiently treated using a modified retrosigmoid petrosal approach that is called the retrosigmoid intradural suprameatal approach (RISA). The RISA was introduced in 1983, and since that time 12 patients harboring petroclival meningiomas have been treated using this technique. The RISA includes a retrosigmoid craniotomy and drilling of the suprameatus petrous bone, which is located above and anterior to the internal auditory meatus, thus providing access to Meckel's cave and the middle fossa. Radical tumor resection (Simpson Grade I or II) was achieved in nine (75%) of the 12 patients. Two patients underwent subtotal resection (Simpson Grade III). and one patient underwent complete resection of tumor at the posterior fossa with subtotal resection at the middle fossa. There were no deaths or severe complications in this series; all patients did well postoperatively, being independent at the time of their last follow-up examinations (mean 5.6 years). Neurological deficits included facial paresis in one patient and worsening of hearing in two patients. The approach described here is a useful modification of the retrosigmoid approach, which allows resection of large petroclival tumors without the need for supratentorial craniotomies. Although technically meticulous, this approach is not time-consuming; it is safe and can produce good results. This is the first report on the use of this approach for petroclival meningiomas.
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              Suprameatal extension of the retrosigmoid approach: microsurgical anatomy.

              This study was conducted to determine whether removing the bony prominence located above the porus of the internal acoustic meatus, called the suprameatal tubercle, and surrounding bone using the retrosigmoid approach would aid in the exposure of tumors that are located predominantly in the cerebellopontine angle but that also extend into the middle cranial fossa in the region of Meckel's cave and thus avoid the need for a supratentorial craniotomy. Thirty cerebellopontine angles from 15 cadaveric heads examined using 3 to 40x magnification provided the material for this study. A retrosigmoid craniotomy was completed and the exposure obtained before and after removing the suprameatal tubercle, and the surrounding bone was examined. In some cases, Meckel's cave and the tentorium lateral to the porus of Meckel's cave was opened to aid in the exposure. Removing the suprameatal tubercle and surrounding bone increased the exposure an average of 10.3 mm (range, 8.0-13.0 mm) forward of the exposure, which could be obtained without suprameatal drilling. The extent of bone removal was limited on the lateral side by the posterior and superior semicircular canals and their common crus. The suprameatal extension of the retrosigmoid approach will permit removal of some tumors that are located mainly in the posterior fossa but that extend into the middle fossa in the region of Meckel's cave. The exposure can be increased by opening the superior petrosal sinus as it crosses in the upper margin of the porus of Meckel's cave and by opening the tentorium lateral to Meckel's cave.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +81-3-39728111 , +81-3-35540425 , takao@med.nihon-u.ac.jp
                Journal
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochir (Wien)
                Acta Neurochirurgica
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                0001-6268
                0942-0940
                30 August 2013
                30 August 2013
                2013
                : 155
                : 1871-1878
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurological Surgery, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamimachi, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610 Japan
                Article
                1840
                10.1007/s00701-013-1840-8
                3779012
                23990034
                00566ca3-2775-4569-b7b6-23f43171aba5
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                History
                : 9 May 2013
                : 2 August 2013
                Categories
                Case Report - Brain Tumors
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

                Surgery
                attachment,classification,cerebellopontine angle,meningioma,petrosal vein,venous complication
                Surgery
                attachment, classification, cerebellopontine angle, meningioma, petrosal vein, venous complication

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