31
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist Vorapaxar in Acute Coronary Syndromes

      , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

      New England Journal of Medicine

      Massachusetts Medical Society

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization. Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).

          Related collections

          Most cited references 15

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Apixaban with antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome.

          Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events. The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P=0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P=0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo. The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; APPRAISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00831441.).
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Rivaroxaban versus placebo in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ATLAS ACS-TIMI 46): a randomised, double-blind, phase II trial.

            Rivaroxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been effective in prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. However, its use after acute coronary syndromes has not been investigated. In this setting, we assessed the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban and aimed to select the most favourable dose and dosing regimen. In this double-blind, dose-escalation, phase II study, undertaken at 297 sites in 27 countries, 3491 patients stabilised after an acute coronary syndrome were stratified on the basis of investigator decision to use aspirin only (stratum 1, n=761) or aspirin plus a thienopyridine (stratum 2, n=2730). Participants were randomised within each strata and dose tier with a block randomisation method at 1:1:1 to receive either placebo or rivaroxaban (at doses 5-20 mg) given once daily or the same total daily dose given twice daily. The primary safety endpoint was clinically significant bleeding (TIMI major, TIMI minor, or requiring medical attention); the primary efficacy endpoint was death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or severe recurrent ischaemia requiring revascularisation during 6 months. Safety analyses included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug; efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00402597. Three patients in stratum 1 and 26 in stratum 2 never received the study drug. The risk of clinically significant bleeding with rivaroxaban versus placebo increased in a dose-dependent manner (hazard ratios [HRs] 2.21 [95% CI 1.25-3.91] for 5 mg, 3.35 [2.31-4.87] for 10 mg, 3.60 [2.32-5.58] for 15 mg, and 5.06 [3.45-7.42] for 20 mg doses; p<0.0001). Rates of the primary efficacy endpoint were 5.6% (126/2331) for rivaroxaban versus 7.0% (79/1160) for placebo (HR 0.79 [0.60-1.05], p=0.10). Rivaroxaban reduced the main secondary efficacy endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke compared with placebo (87/2331 [3.9%] vs 62/1160 [5.5%]; HR 0.69, [95% CI 0.50-0.96], p=0.0270). The most common adverse event in both groups was chest pain (248/2309 [10.7%] vs 118/1153 [10.2%]). The use of an oral factor Xa inhibitor in patients stabilised after an acute coronary syndrome increases bleeding in a dose-dependent manner and might reduce major ischaemic outcomes. On the basis of these observations, a phase III study of low-dose rivaroxaban as adjunctive therapy in these patients is underway. Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development and Bayer Healthcare AG.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                January 05 2012
                January 05 2012
                : 366
                : 1
                : 20-33
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1109719
                22077816
                © 2012
                Product

                Comments

                Comment on this article