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      Brazilian ornamental phytogenetic resources in Embrapa germplasm banks: obstacles and opportunities Translated title: Recursos fitogenéticos ornamentais brasileiros em bancos de germoplasma da Embrapa: entraves e oportunidades

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          Abstract

          Abstract Brazilian floriculture is driven by novelties, requiring the constant entry of new products into the market. This situation favors Brazil, which has, in its native flora, unique species in the world and with high potential for rational use for commercial purposes. The Brazilian flora with ornamental potential is little explored, and the use of species is restricted and, often, extractive with consequent genetic erosion. The use of native species from different ecosystems may constitute a future alternative of products for Brazilian floriculture. Despite the large amount of plant genetic resources, there are few initiatives for the conservation and domestication of species and improvement for sustainable use. For this reason, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) conserves collections of ornamental plants, and the research initiatives of these collections form the Genetic Resources of Ornamental Plants Project. In addition to conservation, it sought, in partnership with other institutions, the characterization and evaluation of the potential use of these species aiming at the completion of products for floriculture. In this way, the materials already characterized and documented make it possible to add value to genetic resources, already maintained. Currently, Embrapa has six ex situ collections of ornamental plants (Tropical species, Bromeliads, Cactaceae and species from the Pampa Biome, Amazonian Orchids and species from Cerrado) and also counts on the genetic variability of banks of other products (Passion fruit, Pineapple, Paspalum, Pepper, Pumpkin germplasm banks) that have been evaluating accessions, selecting and registering cultivars for ornamental use.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo A floricultura brasileira é movida por novidades, necessitando da constante entrada de novos produtos no mercado. Esta situação favorece o Brasil que dispõe, em sua flora nativa, de espécies únicas no mundo, e com elevado potencial de aproveitamento racional para fins comerciais. A flora brasileira de potencial ornamental é pouco explorada, sendo restrita e muitas vezes extrativista a utilização de espécies com consequente erosão genética. A utilização de espécies nativas de diferentes ecossistemas pode constituir uma alternativa futura de produtos regionais diferenciados para a floricultura brasileira. Apesar da grande quantidade de recursos fitogenéticos são poucas as iniciativas de conservação e domesticação das espécies e melhoramento, para aproveitamento sustentável. Por esta razão, a Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) conserva acervos de plantas ornamentais, e as iniciativas de pesquisa dessas coleções formam o projeto de Recursos Genéticos de Plantas Ornamentais. Além da conservação, buscasse em parceria com outras instituições, a caracterização e avaliação do potencial de uso destas espécies objetivando a finalização de produtos para floricultura. Desta forma, os materiais já caracterizados e documentados, possibilitam a agregação de valor aos recursos genéticos, já conservados. Atualmente, a EMBRAPA possui seis coleções ex situ de plantas ornamentais (Espécies Tropicais, Bromélias, Cactáceas e espécies do Bioma Pampa, Orquídeas Amazônicas e Amarilidáceas do Cerrado) e conta também com a variabilidade genética de bancos com germoplasma de outros produtos (Banco de germoplasma de Maracujá, Abacaxi, Paspalum, Pimenta, Abóboras) que vêm avaliando acessos, selecionando e registrando cultivares para uso ornamental.

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          High proportion of cactus species threatened with extinction.

          A high proportion of plant species is predicted to be threatened with extinction in the near future. However, the threat status of only a small number has been evaluated compared with key animal groups, rendering the magnitude and nature of the risks plants face unclear. Here we report the results of a global species assessment for the largest plant taxon evaluated to date under the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Categories and Criteria, the iconic Cactaceae (cacti). We show that cacti are among the most threatened taxonomic groups assessed to date, with 31% of the 1,478 evaluated species threatened, demonstrating the high anthropogenic pressures on biodiversity in arid lands. The distribution of threatened species and the predominant threatening processes and drivers are different to those described for other taxa. The most significant threat processes comprise land conversion to agriculture and aquaculture, collection as biological resources, and residential and commercial development. The dominant drivers of extinction risk are the unscrupulous collection of live plants and seeds for horticultural trade and private ornamental collections, smallholder livestock ranching and smallholder annual agriculture. Our findings demonstrate that global species assessments are readily achievable for major groups of plants with relatively moderate resources, and highlight different conservation priorities and actions to those derived from species assessments of key animal groups.
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            Sustainability in Brazilian floriculture: introductory notes to a systemic approach

            ABSTRACT The article aims at an introductory exploration of the theme of sustainability in Brazilian floriculture, both in its segment of cut flowers and foliage and in landscaping. The study is based on bibliographic review, data collection and interpretation on the recent performance of the flower and ornamental plants market in Brazil, with emphasis on the role played by the importation of genetic material from exotic species to support commercial activity in the country. From this phenomenon and the productive and distributive concentration of the flowers and plants in the State of Sao Paulo (Holambra, Santo Antônio de Posse, Campinas, Atibaia and Mogi das Cruzes), discusses the national homogenization of taste and consumption habits and requirements for adapting exotic species. In the end, the research points to future ways of investigating the potential of native species exploration in favor of better results for the environmental and socioeconomic sustainability of the floriculture and ornamental plants sector in Brazil.
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              State of the science and challenges of breeding landscape plants with ecological function

              Exotic plants dominate esthetically-managed landscapes, which cover 30–40 million hectares in the United States alone. Recent ecological studies have found that landscaping with exotic plant species can reduce biodiversity on multiple trophic levels. To support biodiversity in urbanized areas, the increased use of native landscaping plants has been advocated by conservation groups and US federal and state agencies. A major challenge to scaling up the use of native species in landscaping is providing ornamental plants that are both ecologically functional and economically viable. Depending on ecological and economic constraints, accelerated breeding approaches could be applied to ornamental trait development in native plants. This review examines the impact of landscaping choices on biodiversity, the current status of breeding and selection of native ornamental plants, and the interdisciplinary research needed to scale up landscaping plants that can support native biodiversity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                oh
                Ornamental Horticulture
                Ornam. Hortic.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Floricultura e Plantas Ornamentais (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                2447-536X
                December 2022
                : 28
                : 4
                : 396-406
                Affiliations
                [3] Cruz das Almas Bahia orgnameUniversidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia Brazil
                [5] Brasília Distrito Federal orgnameEmbrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia Brazil
                [4] Boa Vista Roraima orgnameEmbrapa Roraima Brazil
                [2] Cruz das Almas Bahia orgnameEmbrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Brazil
                [1] Fortaleza Ceará orgnameEmbrapa Agroindústria Tropical Brazil
                Article
                S2447-536X2022000400396 S2447-536X(22)02800400396
                10.1590/2447-536x.v28i4.2549
                01e1bfe5-1c64-4199-81c7-7afc1228bc41

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 05 October 2022
                : 05 August 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 11
                Product

                SciELO Brazil


                floricultura,paisagismo,plantas ornamentais,recursos genéticos,floriculture,genetic resources,landscaping,ornamental plants

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