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      E-cigarette flavored pods induce inflammation, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and DNA damage in lung epithelial cells and monocytes

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          Abstract

          E-cigarette flavored pods are increasing in use among young adults. Although marketed as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes, the health effects of e-cigarette flavored pods are unknown. We hypothesized that e-cigarette flavored pods would cause oxidative stress, barrier dysfunction, and an inflammatory response in monocytes and lung epithelial cells. JUUL pod flavors (Fruit Medley, Virginia Tobacco, Cool Mint, Crème Brulee, Cool Cucumber, Mango, and Classic Menthol) and similar pod flavors (Just Mango-Strawberry Coconut and Caffé Latte) were tested. These pod flavors generated significant amounts of acellular ROS and induced significant mitochondrial superoxide production in bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE). Lung epithelial cells (16-HBE, BEAS-2B) and monocytes (U937) exposed to various pod aerosols resulted in increased inflammatory mediators, such as IL-8 or PGE 2. JUUL pod flavors, Crème Brulee and Cool Cucumber, caused epithelial barrier dysfunction in 16-HBE cells. Moreover, tested flavors also showed DNA damage upon exposure in monocytes. We determined the chemical constituents present in various flavors. Our data suggest that these constituents in flavored pods induce oxidative stress, inflammation, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and DNA damage in lung cells. These data provide insights into the regulation of e-cigarette flavored pods, as well as constituents in these flavors.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Reactive oxygen species: role in the development of cancer and various chronic conditions

          Oxygen derived species such as superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical are well known to be cytotoxic and have been implicated in the etiology of a wide array of human diseases, including cancer. Various carcinogens may also partly exert their effect by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their metabolism. Oxidative damage to cellular DNA can lead to mutations and may, therefore, play an important role in the initiation and progression of multistage carcinogenesis. The changes in DNA such as base modification, rearrangement of DNA sequence, miscoding of DNA lesion, gene duplication and the activation of oncogenes may be involved in the initiation of various cancers. Elevated levels of ROS and down regulation of ROS scavengers and antioxidant enzymes are associated with various human diseases including various cancers. ROS are also implicated in diabtes and neurodegenerative diseases. ROS influences central cellular processes such as proliferation a, apoptosis, senescence which are implicated in the development of cancer. Understanding the role of ROS as key mediators in signaling cascades may provide various opportunities for pharmacological intervention.
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            Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs

            Inflammation is a biological response of the immune system that can be triggered by a variety of factors, including pathogens, damaged cells and toxic compounds. These factors may induce acute and/or chronic inflammatory responses in the heart, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, brain, intestinal tract and reproductive system, potentially leading to tissue damage or disease. Both infectious and non-infectious agents and cell damage activate inflammatory cells and trigger inflammatory signaling pathways, most commonly the NF-κB, MAPK, and JAK-STAT pathways. Here, we review inflammatory responses within organs, focusing on the etiology of inflammation, inflammatory response mechanisms, resolution of inflammation, and organ-specific inflammatory responses.
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              Pathophysiological roles of interleukin-8/CXCL8 in pulmonary diseases.

              Fifteen years have passed since the first description of interleukin (IL)-8/CXCL8 as a potent neutrophil chemotactic factor. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that various types of cells can produce a large amount of IL-8/CXCL8 in response to a wide variety of stimuli, including proinflammatory cytokines, microbes and their products, and environmental changes such as hypoxia, reperfusion, and hyperoxia. Numerous observations have established IL-8/CXCL8 as a key mediator in neutrophil-mediated acute inflammation due to its potent actions on neutrophils. However, several lines of evidence indicate that IL-8/CXCL8 has a wide range of actions on various types of cells, including lymphocytes, monocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, besides neutrophils. The discovery of these biological functions suggests that IL-8/CXCL8 has crucial roles in various pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer. Here, an overview of its protein structure, mechanisms of production, and receptor system will be discussed as well as the pathophysiological roles of IL-8/CXCL8 in various types of lung pathologies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                irfan_rahman@urmc.rochester.edu
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                13 December 2019
                13 December 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9166, GRID grid.412750.5, Department of Environmental Medicine, , University of Rochester Medical Center, School of Medicine & Dentistry, ; Rochester, NY USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1064 6382, GRID grid.454120.6, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, , College of Brockport, State University of New York, ; NY New York, USA
                Article
                51643
                10.1038/s41598-019-51643-6
                6910911
                31836726
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000050, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI);
                Award ID: 1R01HL135613
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100008746, National Cancer Center;
                Award ID: U54CA228110
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100000066, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services | NIH | National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS);
                Award ID: T32-ES00702
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
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                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized

                chemokines, acute inflammation

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