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      Effects of Haemodialysis on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cell Count

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          Abstract

          During haemodialysis (HD) the endothelium is the first organ to sense and to be impaired by mechanical and immunological stimuli. We hypothesized that a single HD session induces mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and that cardiovascular risk factors may influence this process. We quantified EPCs at different maturational stages (CD34+, CD133+/VEGFR2+) in blood samples from 30 patients, during HD and on the interdialytic day, and in 10 healthy volunteers. Samples were drawn at the start of HD, 1, 2 and 3 h after, at the end of HD and at 24 h on the interdialytic day. Patients were divided into two groups based on a recent risk scoring system (SCORE project): low-risk (LR) and high-risk groups (HR). HD patients showed a significantly reduced basal number of EPCs with respect to healthy volunteers. In contrast, we observed increasing EPCs during HD whereas they diminished on the interdialytic day. The EPC number was directly correlated with HD time progression. The EPC number during HD was increased in the HR group with respect to the LR group. We had a direct correlation between risk score and number of EPCs. Cardiovascular risk factors influenced the mobilization of stem cells from the bone marrow. This feature could be the direct consequence of an augmented request of stem cells to respond to the most important endothelial impairment but could also show a defective capacity of EPCs to home in and repair the sites of vascular injury.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Number and migratory activity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells inversely correlate with risk factors for coronary artery disease.

          Recent studies provide increasing evidence that postnatal neovascularization involves bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The regulation of EPCs in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear at present. Therefore, we determined the number and functional activity of EPCs in 45 patients with CAD and 15 healthy volunteers. The numbers of isolated EPCs and circulating CD34/kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)-positive precursor cells were significantly reduced in patients with CAD by approximately 40% and 48%, respectively. To determine the influence of atherosclerotic risk factors, a risk factor score including age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, positive family history of CAD, and LDL cholesterol levels was used. The number of risk factors was significantly correlated with a reduction of EPC levels (R=-0.394, P=0.002) and CD34-/KDR-positive cells (R=-0.537, P<0.001). Analysis of the individual risk factors demonstrated that smokers had significantly reduced levels of EPCs (P<0.001) and CD34-/KDR-positive cells (P=0.003). Moreover, a positive family history of CAD was associated with reduced CD34-/KDR-positive cells (P=0.011). Most importantly, EPCs isolated from patients with CAD also revealed an impaired migratory response, which was inversely correlated with the number of risk factors (R=-0.484, P=0.002). By multivariate analysis, hypertension was identified as a major independent predictor for impaired EPC migration (P=0.043). The present study demonstrates that patients with CAD revealed reduced levels and functional impairment of EPCs, which correlated with risk factors for CAD. Given the important role of EPCs for neovascularization of ischemic tissue, the decrease of EPC numbers and activity may contribute to impaired vascularization in patients with CAD. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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            Circulating endothelial microparticles are associated with vascular dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal failure.

            Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are major determinants of cardiovascular risk in patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Microparticles are membrane fragments shed from damaged or activated cells. Because microparticles can affect endothelial cells, this study investigated the relationship between circulating microparticles and arterial dysfunction in patients with ESRF and identified the cellular origin of microparticles associated with these alterations. Flow cytometry analysis of platelet-free plasma from 44 patients with ESRF indicated that circulating levels of Annexin V+ microparticles were increased compared with 32 healthy subjects, as were levels of microparticles derived from endothelial cells (three-fold), platelets (16.5-fold), and erythrocytes (1.6-fold). However, when arterial function was evaluated noninvasively in patients with ESRF, only endothelial microparticle levels correlated highly with loss of flow-mediated dilation (r = -0.543; P = 0.004), increased aortic pulse wave velocity (r = 0.642, P < 0.0001), and increased common carotid artery augmentation index (r = 0.463, P = 0.0017), whereas platelet-derived, erythrocyte-derived, and Annexin V+ microparticle levels did not. In vitro, microparticles from patients with ESRF impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and cyclic guanosine monophosphate generation, whereas microparticles from healthy subjects did not. Moreover, in vitro endothelial dysfunction correlated with endothelial-derived (r = 0.891; P = 0.003) but not platelet-derived microparticle concentrations. In fact, endothelial microparticles alone decreased endothelial nitric oxide release by 59 +/- 7% (P = 0.025). This study suggests that circulating microparticles of endothelial origin are tightly associated with endothelial dysfunction and arterial dysfunction in ESRF.
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              Erythropoietin is a potent physiologic stimulus for endothelial progenitor cell mobilization.

              Increasing evidence suggests that postnatal neovascularization involves the recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineages share common progenitors. Cytokines formerly thought to be specific for the hematopoietic system have only recently been shown to affect several functions in endothelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the stimulatory potential of erythropoietin (Epo) on EPC mobilization and neovascularization. The bone marrow of Epo-treated mice showed a significant increase in number and proliferation of stem and progenitor cells as well as in colony-forming units. The number of isolated EPCs and CD34+/flk-1+ precursor cells was significantly increased in spleen and peripheral blood of Epo-treated mice compared with phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice. In in vivo models of postnatal neovascularization, Epo significantly increased inflammation- and ischemia-induced neovascularization. The physiologic relevance of these findings was investigated in patients with coronary heart disease. In a multivariate regression model, serum levels of Epo and vascular endothelial growth factor were significantly associated with the number of stem and progenitor cells in the bone marrow as well as with the number and function of circulating EPCs. In conclusion, the present study suggests that Epo stimulates postnatal neovascularization at least in part by enhancing EPC mobilization from the bone marrow. Epo appears to physiologically regulate EPC mobilization in patients with ischemic heart disease. Thus, Epo serum levels may help in identifying patients with impaired EPC recruitment capacity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2007
                July 2007
                12 April 2007
                : 25
                : 3
                : 242-251
                Affiliations
                aChair of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, and bDepartment of Pathology and Experimental Microbiology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
                Article
                101697 Blood Purif 2007;25:242–251
                10.1159/000101697
                17429198
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 41, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Paper

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