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      Atrophic Remodeling of the Transplanted Rat Heart

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          Abstract

          We have previously shown that the common feature of both pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and atrophy is a reactivation of the fetal gene program. Although gene expression profiles and signal transduction pathways in pressure overload hypertrophy have been well studied, little is known about the mechanisms underlying atrophic remodeling of the unloaded heart. Here, we induced atrophic remodeling by heterotopic transplantation of the rat heart. The activity parameters of three signal transduction pathways important in hypertrophy, i.e. mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT), were interrogated. Gene expression of upstream stimuli – insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) – and metabolic correlates, i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and PPARα-regulated genes, of these pathways were also measured. In addition, we measured transcript levels of genes known to regulate skeletal muscle atrophy, all of which are negatively regulated by IGF-1 (Mafbx/Atrogin-1, MuRF-1). Atrophic remodeling of the heart was associated with increased expression of IGF-1 and FGF-2. Transcript levels of the nuclear receptor PPARα were decreased, as were the levels of PPARα-regulated genes. Furthermore, there was phosphorylation of ERK1, STAT3, and p70S6K with unloading. Consistent with the increase in IGF-1, we found a decrease in Mafbx/Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 transcript levels. Rapamycin administration at 0.8 mg/kg/day for 7 days resulted in enhanced atrophy and attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK1, STAT3, and p70S6K without altering gene expression. We conclude that there is significant crosstalk between the mTOR, MAP kinase, and JAK/STAT signaling cascades. Furthermore, ubiquitin ligases, known to be essential for skeletal muscle atrophy, decrease in unloading-induced cardiac atrophy.

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          Most cited references 27

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          TOR, a Central Controller of Cell Growth

          Cell, 103(2), 253-262
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            Inhibition of early apoptotic events by Akt/PKB is dependent on the first committed step of glycolysis and mitochondrial hexokinase.

            The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB is a major downstream effector of growth factor-mediated cell survival. Activated Akt, like Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, prevents closure of a PT pore component, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC); intracellular acidification; mitochondrial hyperpolarization; and the decline in oxidative phosphorylation that precedes cytochrome c release. However, unlike Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, the ability of activated Akt to preserve mitochondrial integrity, and thereby inhibit apoptosis, requires glucose availability and is coupled to its metabolism. Hexokinases are known to bind to VDAC and directly couple intramitochondrial ATP synthesis to glucose metabolism. We provide evidence that such coupling serves as a downstream effector function for Akt. First, Akt increases mitochondria-associated hexokinase activity. Second, the antiapoptotic activity of Akt requires only the first committed step of glucose metabolism catalyzed by hexokinase. Finally, ectopic hexokinase expression mimics the ability of Akt to inhibit cytochrome c release and apoptosis. We therefore propose that Akt increases coupling of glucose metabolism to oxidative phosphorylation and regulates PT pore opening via the promotion of hexokinase-VDAC interaction at the outer mitochondrial membrane.
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              Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inversely regulates atrophy-induced genes via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway.

              Skeletal muscle size is regulated by anabolic (hypertrophic) and catabolic (atrophic) processes. We first characterized molecular markers of both hypertrophy and atrophy and identified a small subset of genes that are inversely regulated in these two settings (e.g. up-regulated by an inducer of hypertrophy, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and down-regulated by a mediator of atrophy, dexamethasone). The genes identified as being inversely regulated by atrophy, as opposed to hypertrophy, include the E3 ubiquitin ligase MAFbx (also known as atrogin-1). We next sought to investigate the mechanism by which IGF-1 inversely regulates these markers, and found that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway, which we had previously characterized as being critical for hypertrophy, is also required to be active in order for IGF-1-mediated transcriptional changes to occur. We had recently demonstrated that the IGF1/PI3K/Akt pathway can block dexamethasone-induced up-regulation of the atrophy-induced ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx by blocking nuclear translocation of a FOXO transcription factor. In the current study we demonstrate that an additional step of IGF1 transcriptional regulation occurs downstream of mTOR, which is independent of FOXO. Thus both the Akt/FOXO and the Akt/mTOR pathways are required for the transcriptional changes induced by IGF-1.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                February 2006
                10 February 2006
                : 105
                : 2
                : 128-136
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, and bDepartment of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                90550 Cardiology 2006;105:128–136
                10.1159/000090550
                16391472
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 2, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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