Implant treatment in an atrophied edentulous posterior maxilla constitutes a challenge for the therapeutic team. The authors of the present study acknowledge that modern micro-rough surface implants in lengths of about 8-10 mm or longer and of different brands are similarly successful. Consequently, the authors propose that the use of different sinus floor elevation techniques should be considered when < 8 mm of bone is available below the maxillary sinus. The type of sinus floor elevation technique selected is mainly based on residual vertical bone height, marginal bone width, local intrasinus anatomy and the number of teeth to be replaced, although other factors (such as surgical training and surgical experience) may have an impact. It is proposed that a transcrestal sinus floor elevation approach can be considered as a first-choice method for single tooth gaps in situations with sufficient width for implant placement and a residual bone height of 5-8 mm, while lateral sinus floor elevation, with or without grafting materials, is indicated when < 5 mm of bone is available and when several teeth are to be replaced. With regard to time of implant placement, a one-stage procedure is preferred provided that high primary stability can be ensured.