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      Thrombin Is a Pro-Fibrotic Factor for Rat Renal Fibroblasts in vitro

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          Abstract

          Background: Generation of thrombin occurs in response to parenchymal injury. Thrombin not only converts plasma fibrinogen into an insoluble fibrin clot, but also potentially augments inflammation through receptor-mediated activity. This study examines whether thrombin may potentially exacerbate fibrosis by upregulating the function of interstitial fibroblasts in vitro. Methods: Fibroblasts were isolated by explant outgrowth culture of rat kidneys. Subcultured cells were grown in DMEM+10% FCS supplemented with 0.1–0.5 U/ml thrombin. Functional parameters examined included kinetics (thymidine incorporation and change in cell number), differentiation (Western blotting for α-smooth muscle actin; αSMA), expression of procollagen α1(I) (Northern blotting) and contraction of collagen I lattices. RT-PCR was used to characterise expression of protease-activated receptors (PAR) previously implicated in thrombin’s cellular effects. Results: Cell population growth was increased 66 ± 41 and 47 ± 41% by 0.1 and 0.5 U/ml thrombin respectively (both p < 0.05 vs. basal). Likewise, 0.5 U/ml thrombin increased corrected procollagen α1(I) expression 2.4-fold (p < 0.05 vs. basal) and exacerbated the ability of fibroblasts to contract collagen matrix (p < 0.05 vs. basal). These effects were not associated with any change in expression of the myofibroblast marker αSMA. Effects on cell number were inhibited by treatment with ( D)-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone HCl (PPACK) suggesting that functional effects were mediated by serine protease activity. PAR-1 was the only fully functional known thrombin receptor expressed by these cells. Conclusion: Thrombin is a potential unrecognised fibroblast agonist in renal disease. Further studies of thrombin and its receptors may yield valuable insights into the pathogenesis of interstitial fibrosis.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Thrombin signalling and protease-activated receptors.

          How does the coagulation protease thrombin regulate cellular behaviour? The protease-activated receptors (PARs) provide one answer. In concert with the coagulation cascade, these receptors provide an elegant mechanism linking mechanical information in the form of tissue injury or vascular leakage to cellular responses. Roles for PARs are beginning to emerge in haemostasis and thrombosis, inflammation, and perhaps even blood vessel development.
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            The role of tubulointerstitial injury in chronic renal failure.

            Progressive renal failure results from a triad of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and vascular sclerosis. The mechanisms by which tubules are injured, and by which the tubular epithelial cell then excites interstitial inflammation culminating in fibroblast activation and fibrosis have become increasingly understood. Most current methods to prevent progressive glomerulosclerosis would inherently prevent tubular injury and interstitial fibrosis. The behaviour and control of the renal fibroblast is being investigated, with the potential for direct interference with its functions.
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              Protease-Activated Receptor 1 Mediates Thrombin-Dependent, Cell-Mediated Renal Inflammation in Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

              Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 is a cellular receptor for thrombin that is activated after proteolytic cleavage. The contribution of PAR-1 to inflammatory cell–mediated renal injury was assessed in murine crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN). A pivotal role for thrombin in this model was demonstrated by the capacity of hirudin, a selective thrombin antagonist, to attenuate renal injury. Compared with control treatment, hirudin significantly reduced glomerular crescent formation, T cell and macrophage infiltration, fibrin deposition, and elevated serum creatinine, which are prominent features of GN. PAR-1–deficient (PAR-1−/−) mice, which have normal coagulation, also showed significant protection from crescentic GN compared with wild-type mice. The reductions in crescent formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and serum creatinine were similar in PAR-1−/− and hirudin-treated mice, but hirudin afforded significantly greater protection from fibrin deposition. Treatment of wild-type mice with a selective PAR-1–activating peptide (TRAP) augmented histological and functional indices of GN, but TRAP treatment did not alter the severity of GN in PAR−/− mice. These results indicate that activation of PAR-1 by thrombin or TRAP amplifies crescentic GN. Thus, in addition to its procoagulant role, thrombin has proinflammatory, PAR-1–dependent effects that augment inflammatory renal injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2005
                October 2005
                08 June 2005
                : 101
                : 2
                : e42-e49
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, bDepartment of Medicine, and cSchool of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
                Article
                86228 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;101:e42–e49
                10.1159/000086228
                15942256
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 30, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86228
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