188
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.

          Related collections

          Most cited references19

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance.

          Many people spend an increasing amount of time in front of computer screens equipped with light-emitting diodes (LED) with a short wavelength (blue range). Thus we investigated the repercussions on melatonin (a marker of the circadian clock), alertness, and cognitive performance levels in 13 young male volunteers under controlled laboratory conditions in a balanced crossover design. A 5-h evening exposure to a white LED-backlit screen with more than twice as much 464 nm light emission {irradiance of 0,241 Watt/(steradian × m(2)) [W/(sr × m(2))], 2.1 × 10(13) photons/(cm(2) × s), in the wavelength range of 454 and 474 nm} than a white non-LED-backlit screen [irradiance of 0,099 W/(sr × m(2)), 0.7 × 10(13) photons/(cm(2) × s), in the wavelength range of 454 and 474 nm] elicited a significant suppression of the evening rise in endogenous melatonin and subjective as well as objective sleepiness, as indexed by a reduced incidence of slow eye movements and EEG low-frequency activity (1-7 Hz) in frontal brain regions. Concomitantly, sustained attention, as determined by the GO/NOGO task; working memory/attention, as assessed by "explicit timing"; and declarative memory performance in a word-learning paradigm were significantly enhanced in the LED-backlit screen compared with the non-LED condition. Screen quality and visual comfort were rated the same in both screen conditions, whereas the non-LED screen tended to be considered brighter. Our data indicate that the spectral profile of light emitted by computer screens impacts on circadian physiology, alertness, and cognitive performance levels. The challenge will be to design a computer screen with a spectral profile that can be individually programmed to add timed, essential light information to the circadian system in humans.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light.

              The endogenous circadian oscillator in mammals, situated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, receives environmental photic input from specialized subsets of photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells. The human circadian pacemaker is exquisitely sensitive to ocular light exposure, even in some people who are otherwise totally blind. The magnitude of the resetting response to white light depends on the timing, intensity, duration, number and pattern of exposures. We report here that the circadian resetting response in humans, as measured by the pineal melatonin rhythm, is also wavelength dependent. Exposure to 6.5 h of monochromatic light at 460 nm induces a two-fold greater circadian phase delay than 6.5 h of 555 nm monochromatic light of equal photon density. Similarly, 460 nm monochromatic light causes twice the amount of melatonin suppression compared to 555 nm monochromatic light, and is dependent on the duration of exposure in addition to wavelength. These studies demonstrate that the peak of sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to light is blue-shifted relative to the three-cone visual photopic system, the sensitivity of which peaks at approximately 555 nm. Thus photopic lux, the standard unit of illuminance, is inappropriate when quantifying the photic drive required to reset the human circadian pacemaker.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
                1091-6490
                0027-8424
                Jan 27 2015
                : 112
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115; and amchang@psu.edu.
                [2 ] Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115; and Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center, 51147 Cologne, Germany.
                [3 ] Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115; and.
                Article
                1418490112
                10.1073/pnas.1418490112
                4313820
                25535358
                067e80bf-194a-42f2-b9f6-740be69326b7
                History

                sleep,phase-shifting,electronics,digital media,chronobiology

                Comments

                Comment on this article