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      A Novel Growth Hormone Secretagogue-1a Receptor Antagonist That Blocks Ghrelin-Induced Growth Hormone Secretion but Induces Increased Body Weight Gain

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          Abstract

          Ghrelin, the natural ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-1a (GHS-1a) receptor, has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to stimulate weight gain and the hope that an antagonist of the GHS-1a receptor could be a treatment for obesity. We have discovered an analog of full-length human ghrelin, BIM-28163, which fully antagonizes GHS-1a by binding to but not activating the receptor. We further demonstrate that BIM-28163 blocks ghrelin activation of the GHS-1a receptor, and inhibits ghrelin-induced GH secretion in vivo. Unexpectedly, however, BIM-28163 acts as an agonist with regard to stimulating weight gain. These results may suggest the presence of an unknown ghrelin receptor that modulates ghrelin actions on weight gain. In keeping with our results on growth hormone (GH) secretion, BIM-28163 acts as an antagonist of ghrelin-induced Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in the medial arcuate nucleus, an area involved in the ghrelin modulation of GH secretion. However, in the dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH), a region associated with regulation of food intake, both ghrelin and BIM-28163 act as agonists to upregulate Fos-IR. The observation that ghrelin and BIM-28163 have different efficacies in inducing Fos-IR in the DMH, and that concomitant administration of ghrelin and an excess of BIM-28163 results in the same level of Fos-IR as BIM-28163 administered alone may demonstrate that in the DMH both ghrelin and BIM-28163 act via the same receptor. If so, it is unlikely that this receptor is GHS-1a. Collectively, our findings suggest that the action of ghrelin to stimulate increased weight gain may be mediated by a novel receptor other than GHS-1a, and further imply that GHS-1a may not be the appropriate target for anti-obesity strategies.

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          Most cited references 13

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          A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release.

          Small synthetic molecules termed growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) act on the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus to stimulate and amplify pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release. A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPC-R) of the pituitary and arcuate ventro-medial and infundibular hypothalamus of swine and humans was cloned and was shown to be the target of the GHSs. On the basis of its pharmacological and molecular characterization, this GPC-R defines a neuroendocrine pathway for the control of pulsatile GH release and supports the notion that the GHSs mimic an undiscovered hormone.
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            Distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue receptor in brain and peripheral tissues

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              Comparative distribution of mRNA encoding the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) in Microcebus murinus (Primate, lemurian) and rat forebrain and pituitary.

              The forebrain and pituitary sites of synthesis of growth hormone secretagogue-receptor mRNA were identified in four adult lemurs (Microcebus murinus) by in situ hybridisation performed with a radiolabeled cRNA probe transcribed from human Growth Hormone Secretagogue-Receptor cDNA. The cRNA sense and antisense probes were hybridised to cryostat sections containing structures extending from the rostral hypothalamus to its caudal limit as defined by the mammillary bodies. The pituitary gland and areas adjacent to the hypothalamus were also analyzed. For comparative purposes, sections from five adult rats containing these structures were hybridised with the same probes. The results point to a widespread distribution of Growth Hormone Secretagogue-Receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus, hippocampal formation, and cerebellar cortex of both lemurs and rats. As in the rat, specific hybridisation was particularly dense in the arcuate nucleus. Significant species differences were observed in the periventricular nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and the pituitary gland. In contrast to the rat, the lemur exhibited marked labelling in the infundibular nucleus, the periventricular nucleus and the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland, whereas no labeling was detectable in the ventromedial nucleus and the lateral hypothalamic area. These results are discussed in terms of difference between the control of growth hormone secretion, feeding behaviour and seasonal rhythmicity among murine species and primates. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2005
                October 2005
                02 November 2005
                : 81
                : 5
                : 339-349
                Affiliations
                aIPSEN Group, Milford, Mass., and bReproductive Neuroscience Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Department of Neurobiology, Yale Medical School, New Haven, Conn., USA
                Article
                88796 Neuroendocrinology 2005;81:339–349
                10.1159/000088796
                16210868
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 39, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Paper

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