Sarah Bettini 1 , Elisa Boutet-Robinet 1 , Christel Cartier 1 , Christine Coméra 1 , Eric Gaultier 1 , Jacques Dupuy 1 , Nathalie Naud 1 , Sylviane Taché 1 , Patrick Grysan 2 , Solenn Reguer 3 , Nathalie Thieriet 4 , Matthieu Réfrégiers 3 , Dominique Thiaudière 3 , Jean-Pierre Cravedi 1 , Marie Carrière 5 , 6 , Jean-Nicolas Audinot 2 , Fabrice H. Pierre 1 , Laurence Guzylack-Piriou a , 1 , Eric Houdeau b , 1
20 January 2017
Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO 2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO 2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer’s patches (PP) as observed with the TiO 2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO 2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO 2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO 2 from dietary sources.