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      LncRNA-SNHG1 promotes macrophage M2-like polarization and contributes to breast cancer growth and metastasis

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          Abstract

          Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers among women. Cancer cells and adjacent cells determine the development of the disease. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in the regulation of different stages of cancer progression. LncRNAs play an important role in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the function of lncRNA in macrophage and tumor cell interaction is poorly described. Here we reported that lncRNA SNHG1 functioned as a modulator of M2 macrophage polarization and regulated tumor growth and angiogenesis. We indicated that knockdown of SNHG1 inhibited M2 macrophage polarization by suppression of STAT6 phosphorylation. SNHG1 silencing significantly alleviated migration of MCF-7 cells and tube formation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Furthermore, we found that implantation of cell mixture of MCF-7 cells and macrophages promoted tumor growth and angiogenesis. However, knockdown of SNHG1 in macrophages reversed that effect. Collectively, we demonstrated the important role of lncRNA SNHG1 in macrophages and breast cancer cells interaction. We highlight the essential effect of lncRNA in tumor progression and provide a new method for the prevention and treatment of breast tumor metastasis.

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          Most cited references28

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Macrophage plasticity, polarization, and function in health and disease.

            Macrophages are heterogeneous and their phenotype and functions are regulated by the surrounding micro-environment. Macrophages commonly exist in two distinct subsets: 1) Classically activated or M1 macrophages, which are pro-inflammatory and polarized by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either alone or in association with Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, and TNF-α; and 2) Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages, which are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory and polarized by Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β. M1 and M2 macrophages have different functions and transcriptional profiles. They have unique abilities by destroying pathogens or repair the inflammation-associated injury. It is known that M1/M2 macrophage balance polarization governs the fate of an organ in inflammation or injury. When the infection or inflammation is severe enough to affect an organ, macrophages first exhibit the M1 phenotype to release TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-23 against the stimulus. But, if M1 phase continues, it can cause tissue damage. Therefore, M2 macrophages secrete high amounts of IL-10 and TGF-β to suppress the inflammation, contribute to tissue repair, remodeling, vasculogenesis, and retain homeostasis. In this review, we first discuss the basic biology of macrophages including origin, differentiation and activation, tissue distribution, plasticity and polarization, migration, antigen presentation capacity, cytokine and chemokine production, metabolism, and involvement of microRNAs in macrophage polarization and function. Secondly, we discuss the protective and pathogenic role of the macrophage subsets in normal and pathological pregnancy, anti-microbial defense, anti-tumor immunity, metabolic disease and obesity, asthma and allergy, atherosclerosis, fibrosis, wound healing, and autoimmunity.
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              Functional Classification and Experimental Dissection of Long Noncoding RNAs

              Over the last decade, it has been increasingly demonstrated that the genomes of many species are pervasively transcribed, resulting in the production of numerous long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). At the same time, it is now appreciated that many types of DNA regulatory elements, such as enhancers and promoters, regularly initiate bidirectional transcription. Thus, discerning functional noncoding transcripts from a vast transcriptome is a paramount priority, and challenge, for the lncRNA field. In this review, we aim to provide a conceptual and experimental framework for classifying and elucidating lncRNA function. We categorize lncRNA loci into those that regulate gene expression in cis versus those that perform functions in trans , and propose an experimental approach to dissect lncRNA activity based on these classifications. These strategies to further understand lncRNAs promise to reveal new and unanticipated biology, with great potential to advance our understanding of normal physiology and disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals
                1945-4589
                15 October 2021
                07 October 2021
                : 13
                : 19
                : 23169-23181
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Breast Surgery, The People’s Hospital of Rizhao, Rizhao, Shandong Province, China
                [2 ]Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, TCM Hospital of Rizhao, Rizhao, Shandong Province, China
                [3 ]Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The People’s Hospital of Rizhao, Rizhao, Shandong Province, China
                [4 ]Department of Oncology, The People’s Hospital of Rizhao, Rizhao, Shandong Province, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Kai Wang; email: wukeba0449@163.com, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8258-4438
                Article
                203609 203609
                10.18632/aging.203609
                8544328
                34618681
                101a6822-0085-4cc1-ad79-8585a8743a00
                Copyright: © 2021 Zong et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 04 January 2021
                : 14 May 2021
                Categories
                Research Paper

                Cell biology
                breast cancer,macrophage,polarization,lncrna,tumor associated macrophages
                Cell biology
                breast cancer, macrophage, polarization, lncrna, tumor associated macrophages

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