Background: The potential benefit of pre-transplant treatment of chronic hepatitis C on long-term evolution after renal transplantation is not clear. Methods: Fifty successive renal transplant candidates had their sera positive for HCV RNA and a biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis. Out of these, 18 patients received a standard course of interferon-α<sub>2b</sub> (IFN; 3 MU three times weekly after hemodialysis sessions for 6 months). Results: IFN was discontinued in 2 patients (11%) due to persistent leukopenia. HCV RNA turned negative in 10 patients of the treatment group and in none of the control group. Two patients of the IFN group had a virological relapse post-transplantation. Post-transplant follow-up periods were 41.5 ± 15 and 50 ± 16 months for the treated and control groups respectively. Transaminases remained normal in all patients of the IFN group after transplantation. In contrast, biochemical evidence of acute and chronic hepatitis was observed in 5 (p = 0.03) and 13 (p = 0.002) patients, respectively, of the control group. Logistic regression analysis identified non-receiving IFN before transplantation as a risk factor for post-transplant hepatic dysfunction (odds ratio = 11.7, p = 0.003) and for chronic allograft nephropathy (odds ratio = 11.6, p = 0.02). Conclusions: IFN-treated patients had a significantly better post-transplant hepatic function and significantly lower rates of chronic allograft nephropathy.