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      Management of clinical chorioamnionitis: an evidence-based approach

      , , ,
      American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Elsevier BV

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          Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth.

          Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed.
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            Acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis: definition, pathologic features, and clinical significance.

            Acute inflammatory lesions of the placenta consist of diffuse infiltration of neutrophils at different sites in the organ. These lesions include acute chorioamnionitis, funisitis, and chorionic vasculitis and represent a host response (maternal or fetal) to a chemotactic gradient in the amniotic cavity. While acute chorioamnionitis is evidence of a maternal host response, funisitis and chorionic vasculitis represent fetal inflammatory responses. Intraamniotic infection generally has been considered to be the cause of acute chorioamnionitis and funisitis; however, recent evidence indicates that "sterile" intraamniotic inflammation, which occurs in the absence of demonstrable microorganisms induced by "danger signals," is frequently associated with these lesions. In the context of intraamniotic infection, chemokines (such as interleukin-8 and granulocyte chemotactic protein) establish a gradient that favors the migration of neutrophils from the maternal or fetal circulation into the chorioamniotic membranes or umbilical cord, respectively. Danger signals that are released during the course of cellular stress or cell death can also induce the release of neutrophil chemokines. The prevalence of chorioamnionitis is a function of gestational age at birth, and present in 3-5% of term placentas and in 94% of placentas delivered at 21-24 weeks of gestation. The frequency is higher in patients with spontaneous labor, preterm labor, clinical chorioamnionitis (preterm or term), or ruptured membranes. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis are the hallmarks of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome, a condition characterized by an elevation in the fetal plasma concentration of interleukin-6, and associated with the impending onset of preterm labor, a higher rate of neonatal morbidity (after adjustment for gestational age), and multiorgan fetal involvement. This syndrome is the counterpart of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adults: a risk factor for short- and long-term complications (ie, sterile inflammation in fetuses, neonatal sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, and cerebral palsy). This article reviews the definition, pathogenesis, grading and staging, and clinical significance of the most common lesions in placental disease. Illustrations of the lesions and diagrams of the mechanisms of disease are provided.
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              ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 106: Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring: nomenclature, interpretation, and general management principles.

              (2009)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
                Elsevier BV
                00029378
                December 2020
                December 2020
                : 223
                : 6
                : 848-869
                Article
                10.1016/j.ajog.2020.09.044
                33007269
                14ce9ddf-7e00-4b69-8da3-fbe5ac27fe6d
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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