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      Abdominal angiostrongyliasis in the Americas: fifty years since the discovery of a new metastrongylid species, Angiostrongylus costaricensis

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          Abstract

          Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode described for the first time in 1971 by Pedro Morera and Rodolfo Céspedes in Costa Rica. This parasite causes an infection known as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, affecting mainly school-aged children and young adults. Infection with A. costaricensis has been associated with a myriad of rodent and mollusk species in the Americas and the Caribbean, as its natural hosts and reservoirs. In this commemorative review, we highlight the extensive research collected through a 50-year journey, which includes ecological, pathological, and molecular studies on A. costaricensis and its implicated disease. We also identify major knowledge gaps in its evolutionary history, the ecological role of imported and invasive mollusk species, and immune response. We propose that the advent of -omics analyses will allow us to gather novel information regarding A. costaricensis biology and infection dynamics, as well as to promote the design of much-needed sensitive and specific diagnostic tools.

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          Most cited references 132

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          Human leptospirosis: guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control

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            Life history and redescription of Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera and Céspedes, 1971.

             Blanca Morera (1973)
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              The genome of Onchocerca volvulus, agent of river blindness

              Human onchocerciasis is a serious neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that can lead to blindness and chronic disability. Control of the disease relies largely on mass administration of a single drug, and the development of new drugs and vaccines depends on a better knowledge of parasite biology. Here, we describe the chromosomes of O. volvulus and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. We provide the highest-quality sequence assembly for any parasitic nematode to date, giving a glimpse into the evolution of filarial parasite chromosomes and proteomes. This resource was used to investigate gene families with key functions that could be potentially exploited as targets for future drugs. Using metabolic reconstruction of the nematode and its endosymbiont, we identified enzymes that are likely to be essential for O. volvulus viability. In addition, we have generated a list of proteins that could be targeted by Federal-Drug-Agency-approved but repurposed drugs, providing starting points for anti-onchocerciasis drug development.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anaalicia.rojas@ucr.ac.cr
                arnaldomaldonadojunior@gmail.com
                javierfrancisco.mora@ucr.ac.cr
                almorassutti@gmail.com
                rubens.rodrigues@terra.com.br
                alberto.solano@ucr.ac.cr
                atijerino@inciensa.sa.cr
                mvargasj@inciensa.sa.cr
                graeff.teixeira@gmail.com
                Journal
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                1756-3305
                22 July 2021
                22 July 2021
                2021
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.412889.e, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0706, Laboratory of Helminthology, Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Tropicales, , University of Costa Rica, ; San José, Costa Rica
                [2 ]GRID grid.418068.3, ISNI 0000 0001 0723 0931, Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Silvestres Reservatórios, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz – FIOCRUZ, ; Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil
                [3 ]Instituto de Patologia e Biologia Molecular de Passo Fundo, School of Medicine, IMED Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
                [4 ]GRID grid.421610.0, ISNI 0000 0000 9019 2157, National Reference Center of Parasitology, Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud, ; Cartago, Costa Rica
                [5 ]GRID grid.412371.2, ISNI 0000 0001 2167 4168, Nucleo de Doenças Infecciosas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, , Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, ; Vitória, Brazil
                Article
                4875
                10.1186/s13071-021-04875-3
                8296644
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

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