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      The Enduring Impact of Parents’ Monitoring, Warmth, Expectancies, and Alcohol Use on Their Children’s Future Binge Drinking and Arrests: a Longitudinal Analysis

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      Prevention Science
      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="P1">Binge drinking is associated with many health and financial costs and is linked to risks of legal consequences. As alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, the current study assessed the relationship between parental behaviors and strategies in forecasting adolescents’ likelihood of binge drinking and later arrest. Restricted data from waves I–IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to assess hypotheses. A weighted path analytic model ( <i>N</i> = 9421) provided a multifaceted picture of variables linked to later antisocial behavior. Low parental monitoring, low parental warmth, parent alcohol use, and parent expectancies regarding their children’s alcohol use were associated with higher incidence of adolescent binge drinking. In turn, low monitoring, low warmth, parent alcohol use, parent expectancies, and underage consumption were associated with binge drinking in early adulthood. Binge drinking during both adolescence and young adulthood were predictive of respondents’ likelihood of arrest 8–14 years later. Findings demonstrated the substantial, enduring effects of parental behaviors on child alcohol-related actions and have implications for parent-targeted interventions designed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. They suggest campaigns that focus on parenting strategies that involve setting effective and strict alcohol-related rules and guidelines, while maintaining a warm and supportive family environment. </p>

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          Most cited references47

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          The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.

          This article develops and tests a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Using a large and diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area high school students (N = 7,836), we found that both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were negatively associated with grades, and authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. Parenting styles generally showed the expected relation to grades across gender, age, parental education, ethnic, and family structure categories. Authoritarian parenting tended to have a stronger association with grades than did the other 2 parenting styles, except among Hispanic males. The full typology best predicted grades among white students. Pure authoritative families (high on authoritative but not high on the other 2 indices) had the highest mean grades, while inconsistent families that combine authoritarian parenting with other parenting styles had the lowest grades.
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            Parenting factors associated with reduced adolescent alcohol use: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

            To identify parenting strategies associated with adolescent alcohol consumption that parents can use to implement new national guidelines regarding alcohol consumption by people under the age of 18. A systematic search of academic literature employing the PRISMA method identified 77 relevant articles. Inclusion criteria for the review were (i) longitudinal cohort studies; (ii) measurement of one or more parenting factors during adolescence or pre-adolescence (between the ages of 8 and 17) as a predictor (iii) outcome measurement of any alcohol use and/or alcohol related problems during adolescence at least one time point after the initial parenting factor was measured, and/or problem drinking in adulthood. Studies were excluded if alcohol use was combined with other substance use or problem behaviour as an outcome variable, or if different parenting factors were combined as a single predictor variable for analysis. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable. Twelve parenting variables were investigated in these studies: parental modelling, provision of alcohol, alcohol-specific communication, disapproval of adolescent drinking, general discipline, rules about alcohol, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, family conflict, parental support, parental involvement, and general communication. We found that delayed alcohol initiation was predicted by: parental modelling, limiting availability of alcohol to the child, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental involvement and general communication. Reduced levels of later drinking by adolescents were predicted by: parental modelling, limiting availability of alcohol to the child, disapproval of adolescent drinking, general discipline, parental monitoring, parent-child relationship quality, parental support and general communication. A number of parenting strategies were identified that parents can use to reduce their adolescent's alcohol consumption. These could be promoted to parents to help them implement new national guidelines on alcohol use.
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              Parental Disciplinary Patterns and Social Competence in Children

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Prevention Science
                Prev Sci
                Springer Nature
                1389-4986
                1573-6695
                July 2016
                May 13 2016
                July 2016
                : 17
                : 5
                : 606-614
                Article
                10.1007/s11121-016-0656-1
                5901752
                27178008
                16d01d9a-4aa9-46e9-820e-2a758f29223a
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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