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      The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease

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      Nature Reviews Immunology
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          Immunological dysregulation is the cause of many non-infectious human diseases such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer. The gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of interaction between the host immune system and microorganisms, both symbiotic and pathogenic. In this Review we discuss findings indicating that developmental aspects of the adaptive immune system are influenced by bacterial colonization of the gut. We also highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host-symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function. Finally, we present recent evidence to support that disturbances in the bacterial microbiota result in dysregulation of adaptive immune cells, and this may underlie disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. This raises the possibility that the mammalian immune system, which seems to be designed to control microorganisms, is in fact controlled by microorganisms.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Nature Reviews Immunology
          Nat Rev Immunol
          Springer Science and Business Media LLC
          1474-1733
          1474-1741
          May 2009
          May 2009
          : 9
          : 5
          : 313-323
          Article
          10.1038/nri2515
          4095778
          19343057
          17dc5914-65b1-4088-ab15-c5df1ca71ce4
          © 2009

          http://www.springer.com/tdm

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