38
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Protective Effect of Lipoic Acid on Selected Cardiovascular Diseases Caused by Age-Related Oxidative Stress

      1 , * , 2

      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity

      Hindawi Publishing Corporation

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 115

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

          Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food. It is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. How do the biochemical properties of LA relate to its biological effects? Herein, we review the molecular mechanisms of LA discovered using cell and animal models, and the effects of LA on human subjects. Though LA has long been touted as an antioxidant, it has also been shown to improve glucose and ascorbate handling, increase eNOS activity, activate Phase II detoxification via the transcription factor Nrf2, and lower expression of MMP-9 and VCAM-1 through repression of NF-kappa B. LA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, may use their chemical properties as a redox couple to alter protein conformations by forming mixed disulfides. Beneficial effects are achieved with low micromolar levels of LA, suggesting that some of its therapeutic potential extends beyond the strict definition of an antioxidant. Current trials are investigating whether these beneficial properties of LA make it an appropriate treatment not just for diabetes, but also for the prevention of vascular disease, hypertension, and inflammation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Reactive oxygen species, vascular oxidative stress, and redox signaling in hypertension: what is the clinical significance?

            Metabolism of oxygen by cells generates potentially deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under normal conditions the rate and magnitude of oxidant formation is balanced by the rate of oxidant elimination. However, an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants results in oxidative stress, which is the pathogenic outcome of oxidant overproduction that overwhelms the cellular antioxidant capacity. The kidney and vasculature are rich sources of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS, which under pathological conditions play an important role in renal dysfunction and vascular damage. Strong experimental evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress and associated oxidative damage are mediators of renovascular injury in cardiovascular pathologies. Increased production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, reduced nitric oxide synthesis, and decreased bioavailability of antioxidants have been demonstrated in experimental and human hypertension. These findings have evoked considerable interest because of the possibilities that therapies targeted against free radicals by decreasing ROS generation or by increasing nitric oxide availability and antioxidants may be useful in minimizing vascular injury and renal dysfunction and thereby prevent or regress hypertensive end-organ damage. This article highlights current developments in the field of ROS and hypertension, focusing specifically on the role of oxidative stress in hypertension-associated vascular damage. In addition, recent clinical trials investigating cardiovascular benefits of antioxidants are discussed, and some explanations for the rather disappointing results from these studies are addressed. Finally, important avenues for future research in the field of ROS, oxidative stress, and redox signaling in hypertension are considered.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Interaction of cardiovascular risk factors with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, preconditioning, and postconditioning.

              Therapeutic strategies to protect the ischemic myocardium have been studied extensively. Reperfusion is the definitive treatment for acute coronary syndromes, especially acute myocardial infarction; however, reperfusion has the potential to exacerbate lethal tissue injury, a process termed "reperfusion injury." Ischemia/reperfusion injury may lead to myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, and contractile dysfunction. Ischemic preconditioning of myocardium is a well described adaptive response in which brief exposure to ischemia/reperfusion before sustained ischemia markedly enhances the ability of the heart to withstand a subsequent ischemic insult. Additionally, the application of brief repetitive episodes of ischemia/reperfusion at the immediate onset of reperfusion, which has been termed "postconditioning," reduces the extent of reperfusion injury. Ischemic pre- and postconditioning share some but not all parts of the proposed signal transduction cascade, including the activation of survival protein kinase pathways. Most experimental studies on cardioprotection have been undertaken in animal models, in which ischemia/reperfusion is imposed in the absence of other disease processes. However, ischemic heart disease in humans is a complex disorder caused by or associated with known cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and heart failure; additionally, aging is an important modifying condition. In these diseases and aging, the pathological processes are associated with fundamental molecular alterations that can potentially affect the development of ischemia/reperfusion injury per se and responses to cardioprotective interventions. Among many other possible mechanisms, for example, in hyperlipidemia and diabetes, the pathological increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and the use of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor insulin secretagogue antidiabetic drugs and, in aging, the reduced expression of connexin-43 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 may disrupt major cytoprotective signaling pathways thereby significantly interfering with the cardioprotective effect of pre- and postconditioning. The aim of this review is to show the potential for developing cardioprotective drugs on the basis of endogenous cardioprotection by pre- and postconditioning (i.e., drug applied as trigger or to activate signaling pathways associated with endogenous cardioprotection) and to review the evidence that comorbidities and aging accompanying coronary disease modify responses to ischemia/reperfusion and the cardioprotection conferred by preconditioning and postconditioning. We emphasize the critical need for more detailed and mechanistic preclinical studies that examine car-dioprotection specifically in relation to complicating disease states. These are now essential to maximize the likelihood of successful development of rational approaches to therapeutic protection for the majority of patients with ischemic heart disease who are aged and/or have modifying comorbid conditions.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2015
                8 April 2015
                : 2015
                Affiliations
                1Department of Applied Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Muszynskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
                2Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Medical University of Lodz, Mazowiecka 6/8, 92-215 Lodz, Poland
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Ersin Fadillioglu

                Article
                10.1155/2015/313021
                4407629
                Copyright © 2015 B. Skibska and A. Goraca.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article