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Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

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      Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases.

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      Most cited references 129

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        In this article we present a detailed discussion of noise sources in Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FDOCT) setups. The performance of FDOCT with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras is compared to current standard time domain OCT systems. We describe how to measure sensitivity in the case of FDOCT and confirm the theoretically obtained values. It is shown that FDOCT systems have a large sensitivity advantage and allow for sensitivities well above 80dB, even in situations with low light levels and high speed detection.
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          Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography.

          We report on imaging of microcirculation by calculating the speckle variance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) structural images acquired using a Fourier domain mode-locked swept-wavelength laser. The algorithm calculates interframe speckle variance in two-dimensional and three-dimensional OCT data sets and shows little dependence to the Doppler angle ranging from 75 degrees to 90 degrees . We demonstrate in vivo detection of blood flow in vessels as small as 25 microm in diameter in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model with direct comparison with intravital fluorescence confocal microscopy. This technique can visualize vessel-size-dependent vascular shutdown and transient vascular occlusion during Visudyne photodynamic therapy and may provide opportunities for studying therapeutic effects of antivascular treatments without on exogenous contrast agent.

            Author and article information

            [a ]Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
            [b ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria
            Author notes
            []Corresponding author. Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Tel.: +43 1 40400 1984. leopold.schmetterer@

            Percentage of work contributed by each author in the production of the manuscript is as follows: Leitgeb: 30%; Werkmeister: 15%; Blatter: 15%; Schmetterer: 40%.

            Prog Retin Eye Res
            Prog Retin Eye Res
            Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
            1 July 2014
            July 2014
            : 41
            : 100
            : 26-43
            © 2014 The Authors

            This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (



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