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      Acer truncatum leaves extract modulates gut microbiota, improves antioxidant capacity, and alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in broilers

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          Abstract

          This study investigated the appropriate way of dietary Acer truncatum leaves ( ATL) addition, the effect of disease prevention and its mechanism of action. In experiment 1, 192 Arbor Acres broilers were assigned to 4 treatment groups, fed with basal diets containing 2% bran, replacing it with primary and fermented ATL, and additional 0.3% ATL extract to the basal diet for 42 d, respectively. In experiment 2, 144 broilers were assigned to 3 treatment groups for 21-d trial: (1) C-N group, basal diets, and injected with 0.9% (w/v) sterile saline; (2) C-L group, basal diets, and injected with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS); (3) T-L group, ATL diets and injected with LPS. In experiment 1, ATL significantly decreased the index of abdominal fat at 42 d ( P < 0.05). ATL extract had a better ability to improve antioxidant capacity and reduce inflammatory levels among all treatment groups, which significantly decreased the content of MDA in the liver and ileum mucosa at 21 d, and increased the expression of IL-10 and Occludin in jejunal mucosa at 42 d ( P < 0.05). In experiment 2, ATL significantly increased the level of T-AOC in the liver, decreased the expression of NF-κB in the jejunal mucosa and ileum mucosa ( P < 0.05), and restored LPS-induced the changed level of CAT in jejunal mucosa, the expression of IL-6, Claudin-1, and ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa and IL-1β in ileum mucosa ( P < 0.05). Analysis of gut microbiota indicated that ATL enhanced the abundances of Bacteroidota and reduced the proportion of Firmicutes ( P < 0.05), and the changed levels of T-AOC in body, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and NF-κB in jejunum mucosa and propionic acid in cecal were associated with gut microbiota. Collectively, our data showed that the extract of ATL had a better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects than primality and fermented. Extraction of ATL modulated intestinal microbiota, and had a protective effect on oxidative stress, inflammation, and intestinal barrier function in broilers challenged with LPS.

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            NF-κB signaling in inflammation

            The transcription factor NF-κB regulates multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immune functions and serves as a pivotal mediator of inflammatory responses. NF-κB induces the expression of various pro-inflammatory genes, including those encoding cytokines and chemokines, and also participates in inflammasome regulation. In addition, NF-κB plays a critical role in regulating the survival, activation and differentiation of innate immune cells and inflammatory T cells. Consequently, deregulated NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenic processes of various inflammatory diseases. In this review, we will discuss the activation and function of NF-κB in association with inflammatory diseases and highlight the development of therapeutic strategies based on NF-κB inhibition.
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              IL-6 in inflammation, immunity, and disease.

              Interleukin 6 (IL-6), promptly and transiently produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Although its expression is strictly controlled by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, dysregulated continual synthesis of IL-6 plays a pathological effect on chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. For this reason, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was developed. Various clinical trials have since shown the exceptional efficacy of tocilizumab, which resulted in its approval for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Moreover, tocilizumab is expected to be effective for other intractable immune-mediated diseases. In this context, the mechanism for the continual synthesis of IL-6 needs to be elucidated to facilitate the development of more specific therapeutic approaches and analysis of the pathogenesis of specific diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Poult Sci
                Poult Sci
                Poultry Science
                Elsevier
                0032-5791
                1525-3171
                21 July 2023
                October 2023
                21 July 2023
                : 102
                : 10
                : 102951
                Affiliations
                [* ]College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, P.R. China
                []Key Laboratory of Livestock Biology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, P.R. China
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author: yangx0629@ 123456163.com
                Article
                S0032-5791(23)00470-4 102951
                10.1016/j.psj.2023.102951
                10432845
                1dfe4acd-d10a-4446-8de8-7bbcda4b5b9e
                © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Poultry Science Association Inc.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 8 May 2023
                : 17 July 2023
                Categories
                IMMUNOLOGY, HEALTH AND DISEASE

                acer truncatum,antioxidant,lipopolysaccharide,inflammation,microbiota

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