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      Sternites and spiracles - the unclear homology of ventral sclerites in the basal millipede order Glomeridesmida (Myriapoda, Diplopoda).

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          Abstract

          We report the discovery of a ventral plate in the basal and little-known chilognath millipede order Glomeridesmida. This ventral plate, interpreted here as a 'true sternite', is clearly separate from both the coxa and the more lateral stigma-carrying plates commonly referred to as 'diplopod sternites'. Therefore, the lateral, stigma-carrying plates of the Diplopoda, previously referred to as sternites, are not sternal elements, but subcoxal elements associated with the limb base. This discovery changes the nomenclature used for the ventral plates in Diplopoda, with the formerly named 'sternite' better referred to as 'stigma-carrying plate'. In helminthomorph Diplopoda, the stigma-carrying plates are apparently secondarily fused with the sternite. The main argument for the independent evolution of tracheae in insects and myriapods, the different location of their respective spiracles, no longer holds true. In all Myriapoda and Hexapoda the spiracles associated with subcoxal elements are located lateral to the limb base. This discovery shows that the arguments for an independent origin of tracheae in insects and myriapods are not uncontestable.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Arthropod Struct Dev
          Arthropod structure & development
          1873-5495
          1467-8039
          Jan 2014
          : 43
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: t.wesener@zfmk.de.
          [2 ] Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, USA.
          [3 ] Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Adenauerallee 160, 53113 Bonn, Germany.
          Article
          S1467-8039(13)00093-5
          10.1016/j.asd.2013.11.003
          24275250
          Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

          Arthropoda, Myriapoda, Sternites, Subcoxa, Tracheae

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