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      Incumbent replacement: evidence for long-term evolutionary progress

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      Paleobiology
      Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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          Abstract

          Evolutionary progress is a trend that relaxes trade-off rules. It begins with the evolution of a key adaptation. It continues with the spread of the key adaptation as the clade that contains it replaces some older clade that lacks it. Key adaptations are those that allow for improvement in at least one organismal function at a reduced fitness cost in other functions.

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          Most cited references40

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          The Mesozoic marine revolution: evidence from snails, predators and grazers

          Tertiary and Recent marine gastropods include in their ranks a complement of mechanically sturdy forms unknown in earlier epochs. Open coiling, planispiral coiling, and umbilici detract from shell sturdiness, and were commoner among Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic gastropods than among younger forms. Strong external sculpture, narrow elongate apertures, and apertural dentition promote resistance to crushing predation and are primarily associated with post-Jurassic mesogastropods, neogastropods, and neritaceans. The ability to remodel the interior of the shell, developed primarily in gastropods with a non-nacreous shell structure, has contributed greatly to the acquisition of these antipredatory features.
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            Background and mass extinctions: the alternation of macroevolutionary regimes.

            Comparison of evolutionary patterns among Late Cretaceous marine bivalves and gastropods during times of normal, background levels of extinction and during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction indicates that mass extinctions are neither an intensification of background patterns nor an entirely random culling of the biota. During background times, traits such as planktotrophic larval development, broad geographic range of constituent species, and high species richness enhanced survivorship of species and genera. In contrast, during the, end-Cretaceous and other mass extinctions these factors were ineffectual, but broad geographic deployment of an entire lineage, regardless of the ranges of its constituent species, enhanced survivorship. Large-scale evolutionary patterns are evidently shaped by the alternation of these two macroevolutionary regimes, with rare but important mass extinctions driving shifts in the composition of the biota that have little relation to success during the background regime. Lineages or adaptations can be lost during mass extinctions for reasons unrelated to their survival values for organisms or species during background times, and long-term success would require the chance occurrence within a single lineage of sets of traits conducive to survivorship under both regimes.
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              Mammalian evolution and the great american interchange.

              A reciprocal and apparently symmetrical interchange of land mammals between North and South America began about 3 million years ago, after the appearance of the Panamanian land bridge. The number of families of land mammals in South America rose from 32 before the interchange to 39 after it began, and then back to 35 at present. An equivalent number of families experienced a comparable rise and decline in North America during the same interval. These changes in diversity are predicted by the MacArthur-Wilson species equilibrium theory. The greater number of North American genera (24) initially entering South America than the reverse (12) is predicted by the proportions of reservoir genera on the two continents. However, a later imbalance caused by secondary immigrants (those which evolved from initial immigrants) is not expected from equilibrium theory.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Paleobiology
                Paleobiology
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0094-8373
                1938-5331
                1991
                July 2015
                : 17
                : 03
                : 202-213
                Article
                10.1017/S0094837300010563
                1eea1f43-3aa2-471a-98ae-c4e425245794
                © 1991

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