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      Intensified Likelihood of Concurrent Warm and Dry Months Attributed to Anthropogenic Climate Change

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          Abstract

          Detection and attribution studies generally examine individual climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. Thus, we lack a strong understanding of climate change impacts on correlated climate extremes and compound events, which have become more common in recent years. Here we present a monthly‐scale compound warm and dry attribution study, examining CMIP6 climate models with and without the influence of anthropogenic forcing. We show that most regions have experienced large increases in concurrent warm and dry months in historical simulations with human emissions, while no coherent change has occurred in historical natural‐only simulations without human emissions. At the global scale, the likelihood of compound warm‐dry months has increased 2.7 times due to anthropogenic emissions. With this multivariate perspective, we highlight that anthropogenic emissions have not only impacted individual extremes but also compound extremes. Due to amplified risks from multivariate extremes, our results can provide important insights on the risks of associated climate impacts.

          Plain Language Summary

          Most climate change studies tend to explore changes in individual climate variables such as temperature or precipitation. Due to this, we currently do not possess a strong understanding of the multiple changes that can occur simultaneously under human‐driven climate change. Here we present how the simultaneous occurrence of warm and dry months have increased significantly under modeled climate conditions with human emissions, especially relative to modeled climate conditions without human emissions. We highlight that at the global scale, the occurrence of simultaneously warm and dry months has increased 2.7 times under the presence of human emissions. Since the simultaneous occurrence of extreme climate conditions can produce devastating impacts, this study provides an important perspective on the large‐scale multivariate changes that have emerged as a result of human‐driven climate change.

          Key Points

          • Using CMIP6 model output, we attribute large increases in concurrent warm and dry months across the globe to anthropogenic activities

          • Due to anthropogenic forcing, the global likelihood of warm‐dry months has increased by 2.7 times in land areas between 60°N–60°S

          • Warm‐dry concurrences show largest increases in the tropics and subtropics (Central and South America, Africa, and East and Southeast Asia)

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          Most cited references61

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          Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization

          By coordinating the design and distribution of global climate model simulations of the past, current, and future climate, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has become one of the foundational elements of climate science. However, the need to address an ever-expanding range of scientific questions arising from more and more research communities has made it necessary to revise the organization of CMIP. After a long and wide community consultation, a new and more federated structure has been put in place. It consists of three major elements: (1) a handful of common experiments, the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) and CMIP historical simulations (1850–near present) that will maintain continuity and help document basic characteristics of models across different phases of CMIP; (2) common standards, coordination, infrastructure, and documentation that will facilitate the distribution of model outputs and the characterization of the model ensemble; and (3) an ensemble of CMIP-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) that will be specific to a particular phase of CMIP (now CMIP6) and that will build on the DECK and CMIP historical simulations to address a large range of specific questions and fill the scientific gaps of the previous CMIP phases. The DECK and CMIP historical simulations, together with the use of CMIP data standards, will be the entry cards for models participating in CMIP. Participation in CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs by individual modelling groups will be at their own discretion and will depend on their scientific interests and priorities. With the Grand Science Challenges of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) as its scientific backdrop, CMIP6 will address three broad questions: – How does the Earth system respond to forcing? – What are the origins and consequences of systematic model biases? – How can we assess future climate changes given internal climate variability, predictability, and uncertainties in scenarios? This CMIP6 overview paper presents the background and rationale for the new structure of CMIP, provides a detailed description of the DECK and CMIP6 historical simulations, and includes a brief introduction to the 21 CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs.
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            Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review

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              Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003.

              Future climate warming is expected to enhance plant growth in temperate ecosystems and to increase carbon sequestration. But although severe regional heatwaves may become more frequent in a changing climate, their impact on terrestrial carbon cycling is unclear. Here we report measurements of ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes, remotely sensed radiation absorbed by plants, and country-level crop yields taken during the European heatwave in 2003. We use a terrestrial biosphere simulation model to assess continental-scale changes in primary productivity during 2003, and their consequences for the net carbon balance. We estimate a 30 per cent reduction in gross primary productivity over Europe, which resulted in a strong anomalous net source of carbon dioxide (0.5 Pg C yr(-1)) to the atmosphere and reversed the effect of four years of net ecosystem carbon sequestration. Our results suggest that productivity reduction in eastern and western Europe can be explained by rainfall deficit and extreme summer heat, respectively. We also find that ecosystem respiration decreased together with gross primary productivity, rather than accelerating with the temperature rise. Model results, corroborated by historical records of crop yields, suggest that such a reduction in Europe's primary productivity is unprecedented during the last century. An increase in future drought events could turn temperate ecosystems into carbon sources, contributing to positive carbon-climate feedbacks already anticipated in the tropics and at high latitudes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Water Resources Research
                Water Resources Research
                American Geophysical Union (AGU)
                0043-1397
                1944-7973
                June 2022
                June 21 2022
                June 2022
                : 58
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California Irvine CA USA
                [2 ] International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Laxenburg Austria
                [3 ] Department of Earth System Science University of California Irvine CA USA
                Article
                10.1029/2021WR030411
                1f6c6296-98a6-4433-ba83-251f77b3500e
                © 2022

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