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      Treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Who, Why, What?

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Osteoporosis, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Bisphosphonates, Collagen type I

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disorder characterized by bone fragility and reduced bone mass. It may present with a wide range of severity. About 85% of the cases are linked to mutations in one of the two genes encoding type I collagen. In other cases of OI, there are mutations in the expression of a cartilage-related protein or of 3-prolyl-hydroxylase.Increased bone turnover rate, due to the repair activity triggered to replace weak tissue, is the rule. Often, disuse bone loss further compounds the decrease in bone mass. These findings justify the use of bisphosphonates to reduce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and so tilt the remodeling balance towards an increase in bone mass. Conclusions: Cyclical intravenous pamidronate administration reduces bone pain, and increases bone mass and density. No negative effects on growth or fracture repair have been observed. There is an increase in size of vertebral bodies and thickening of cortical bone, which translates into decreased fracture incidence and improved ambulation. However, the long-term consequences of low bone turnover in children with OI are unknown at the present time. Innovative surgery and specific occupational and physiotherapy programs are integral parts of the treatment protocol. This approach will prevail until gene-based therapies become clinically applicable.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Genetic heterogeneity in osteogenesis imperfecta.

           D Sillence,  D Danks,  A Senn (1979)
          An epidemiological and genetical study of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in Victoria, Australia confirmed that there are at least four distinct syndromes at present called OI. The largest group of patients showed autosomal dominant inheritance of osteoporosis leading to fractures and distinctly blue sclerae. A large proportion of adults had presenile deafness or a family history of presenile conductive hearing loss. A second group, who comprised the majority of newborns with neonatal fractures, all died before or soon after birth. These had characteristic broad, crumpled femora and beaded ribs in skeletal x-rays. Autosomal recessive inheritance was likely for some, if not all, of these cases. A third group, two thirds of whom had fractures at birth, showed severe progressive deformity of limbs and spine. The density of scleral blueness appeared less than that seen in the first group of patients and approximated that seen in normal children and adults. Moreover, the blueness appeared to decrease with age. All patients in this group were sporadic cases. The mode of inheritance was not resolved by the study, but it is likely that the group is heterogeneous with both dominant and recessive genotypes responsible for the syndrome. The fourth group of patients showed dominant inheritance of osteoporosis leading to fractures, with variable deformity of long bones, but normal sclerae.
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            Cyclic administration of pamidronate in children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

            Severe osteogenesis imperfecta is a disorder characterized by osteopenia, frequent fractures, progressive deformity, loss of mobility, and chronic bone pain. There is no effective therapy for the disorder. We assessed the effects of treatment with a bisphosphonate on bone resorption. In an uncontrolled observational study involving 30 children who were 3 to 16 years old and had severe osteogenesis imperfecta, we administered pamidronate intravenously (mean [+/-SD] dose, 6.8+/-1.1 mg per kilogram of body weight per year) at 4-to-6-month intervals for 1.3 to 5.0 years. Clinical status, biochemical characteristics reflecting bone turnover, the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, and radiologic changes were assessed regularly during treatment. Administration of pamidronate resulted in sustained reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations and in the urinary excretion of calcium and type I collagen N-telopeptide. There was a mean annualized increase of 41.9+/-29.0 percent in bone mineral density, and the deviation of bone mineral density from normal, as indicated by the z score, improved from -5.3+/-1.2 to -3.4+/-1.5. The cortical width of the metacarpals increased by 27+/-20.2 percent per year. The increases in the size of the vertebral bodies suggested that new bone had formed. The mean incidence of radiologically confirmed fractures decreased by 1.7 per year (P<0.001). Treatment with pamidronate did not alter the rate of fracture healing, the growth rate, or the appearance of the growth plates. Mobility and ambulation improved in 16 children and remained unchanged in the other 14. All the children reported substantial relief of chronic pain and fatigue. In children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta, cyclic administration of intravenous pamidronate improved clinical outcomes, reduced bone resorption, and increased bone density.
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              Intravenous zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density.

              Bisphosphonates are effective agents for the management of osteoporosis. Their low bioavailability and low potency necessitate frequent administration on an empty stomach, which may reduce compliance. Gastrointestinal intolerance limits maximal dosing. Although intermittent intravenous treatments have been used, the optimal doses and dosing interval have not been systematically explored. We studied the effects of five regimens of zoledronic acid, the most potent bisphosphonate, on bone turnover and density in 351 postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density in a one-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women received placebo or intravenous zoledronic acid in doses of 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, or 1 mg at three-month intervals. In addition, one group received a total annual dose of 4 mg as a single dose, and another received two doses of 2 mg each, six months apart. Lumbar-spine bone mineral density was the primary end point. There were similar increases in bone mineral density in all the zoledronic acid groups to values for the spine that were 4.3 to 5.1 percent higher than those in the placebo group (P<0.001) and values for the femoral neck that were 3.1 to 3.5 percent higher than those in the placebo group (P<0.001). Biochemical markers of bone resorption were significantly suppressed throughout the study in all zoledronic acid groups. Myalgia and pyrexia occurred more commonly in the zoledronic acid groups, but treatment-related dropout rates were similar to that in the placebo group. Zoledronic acid infusions given at intervals of up to one year produce effects on bone turnover and bone density as great as those achieved with daily oral dosing with bisphosphonates with proven efficacy against fractures, suggesting that an annual infusion of zoledronic acid might be an effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8475-3
                978-3-8055-8476-0
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                December 2007
                10 December 2007
                : 68
                : Suppl 5
                : 8-11
                Affiliations
                Department of Surgery, Pediatrics and Human Genetics, Shriner’s Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Qué., Canada
                Article
                110463 Horm Res 2007;68:8–11
                10.1159/000110463
                18174695
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 28, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Combined Plenary Lecture 3

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