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      Serum Paraoxonase Activity Changes in Uremic and Kidney-Transplanted Patients

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          Serum paraoxonase (PON) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated hydrolase, which inhibits low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Uremic and kidney-transplanted patients have an increased risk of atherosclerosis, to which an increased lipoprotein oxidation may contribute. The aim of our study was to determine whether the PON activity or phenotype is altered in uremic and kidney-transplanted patients, and to compare the values with those of healthy controls. 117 uremic patients on long-term hemodialysis treatment, 115 renal-transplanted patients, and 110 healthy controls were involved in the study. The PON activity was significantly reduced in the uremic patients compared to controls (PON 101.36±30.12 vs. control 188.05±58.96 U/ml; p < 0.001), while in kidney-transplanted patients the values were almost identical to those of controls (PON 161.5±35.39 U/ml). The different immunosuppressive drug combinations did not influence PON activity. To assess whether the altered PON activity was due to a decrease HDL level, we standardized the enzyme activity for the HDL concentration (PON/HDL ratio). We found that the standardized enzyme activity was lower in the uremic (102.7±54.8) and kidney-transplanted patients (144.5±32.7) when compared to controls (194.5±94.5; p < 0.001). The phenotypic distribution of PON in uremic, renal transplant and control patients are as follows: AA 66.67, 56.48 and 66.67%; AB 31.62, 33.3 and 26.67%; BB 1.71, 10.19 and 6.67%. We conclude that the decreased PON/HDL and PON/apoA-1 ratios may lead to a reduction in the antioxidant capacity of HDL, which might contribute to the accelerated development of atherosclerosis in uremic and kidney-transplanted patients.

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          Gln-Arg192 polymorphism of paraoxonase and coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes.

          Paraoxonase is a high-density-lipoprotein-associated enzyme capable of hydrolysing lipid peroxides. Thus it might protect lipoproteins from oxidation. It has two isoforms, which arise from a glutamine (A isoform) to arginine (B isoform) interchange at position 192. The relevance of this polymorphism to coronary heart disease (CHD) in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients was investigated in case-control study. Of the 434 patients, 171 had confirmed coronary artery disease; the other 263 had no history of such disease. The B allele and AB+BB genotypes were associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Compared with subjects homozygous for the A allele (AA genotype), the odds ratio of CHD for subjects homozygous for the B allele was 2.5 (95% CI 1.2-5.3) and that for those heterozygous for the B allele was 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.4), suggesting a codominant effect on cardiovascular risk. When subjected to multivariate analysis, the B allele remained significantly associated with CHD (odds ratio 1.94, p = 0.03). The paraoxonase gene polymorphism is thus an independent cardiovascular risk factor in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. A possible explanation for this finding is that activity of the paraoxonase B isotype does not protect well against lipid oxidation, a major atherogenic pathway.
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            The Serum Paraoxonase Activity in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure and Hyperlipidemia

            Human serum paraoxonase is physically associated with an apolipoprotein (Apo-A 1 ) and clusterin-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and prevents low-density lipoprotein from lipid peroxidation. The aim of our study was to determine whether paraoxonase activity or phenotype is altered in patients with chronic renal failure and in hyperlipidemic subjects without renal insufficiency and to compare the values with those of healthy controls. We investigated the serum paraoxonase activity and polymorphism in 119 hemodialyzed uremic patients, 107 patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia, and in 110 healthy control subjects. The serum paraoxonase activity was significantly decreased both in hyperlipidemic (p 1 levels were as follows: uremic 1 level decreases, we standardized the enzyme activity for HDL and Apo-A 1 concentrations. We found that the standardized paraoxonase activity (paraoxonase/HDL ratio) was also lower in the uremic patients (103.3 ± 69.5) as compared with hyperlipidemic patients (137.64 ± 81.0) and controls (194.45 ± 94.45). The standardized values for Apo-A 1 showed a similar tendency: paraoxonase/Apo-A 1 ratio in uremic patients 89.64 ± 47.8, in hyperlipidemic patients 128.12 ± 69.83, and in controls 161.40 ± 47.35. The phenotypic distribution of paraoxonase (AA, AB, BB) did not change significantly in the patient groups. These results suggest that HDL concentration and phenotypic distribution of paraoxonase may not be the only determining factors, but that other as yet undetermined factors could be involved in the enzyme activity changes.
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              Tissue concentration of clindamycin and gentamicin near ischaemic ulcers with transvenous injection in Bier's arterial arrest


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                October 1999
                22 September 1999
                : 83
                : 2
                : 126-131
                a1st Department of Internal Medicine and b1st Department of Surgery, University Medical School of Debrecen, and cKenézy Teaching Hospital, Debrecen, Hungary
                45489 Nephron 1999;83:126–131
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 43, Pages: 6
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