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      Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in Inner Mongolia Province, China Translated title: Séroprévalence de l’infection par Toxoplasma gondii des moutons dans la province de Mongolie intérieure, Chine

      1 , * , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Toxoplasma gondii, ELISA, Seroprevalence, Sheep, Inner Mongolia, China

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          Abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, and infection may result in many adverse effects on animal husbandry production. Animal husbandry in Inner Mongolia is well developed, but data on T. gondii infection in sheep are lacking. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with the seroprevalence of T. gondii using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. A total of 1853 serum samples were collected from 29 counties of Xilin Gol League ( n = 624), Hohhot City ( n = 225), Ordos City ( n = 158), Wulanchabu City ( n = 144), Bayan Nur City ( n = 114) and Hulunbeir City ( n = 588). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 15.43%. Risk factor analysis showed that seroprevalence was higher in sheep ≥12 months of age (21.85%) than that in sheep <12 months of age (10.20%) ( p < 0.01). Seroprevalence was higher in male sheep (18.76%) than females (12.80%) ( p < 0.01). Barn-feeding sheep (23.13%) had higher prevalence than grazing sheep (10.94%) ( p < 0.01). The seroprevalence was significantly different in different districts ( p < 0.01). This study shows that sheep are exposed to T. gondii in Inner Mongolia, and provides a data reference for public health and disease control.

          Translated abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii est un parasite zoonotique important qui peut infecter presque tous les animaux à sang chaud, y compris les humains, et son infection peut entraîner de nombreux effets néfastes sur la production animale. L’élevage de Mongolie intérieure est développé, mais les données sur l’infection des moutons par T. gondii manquent. Dans cette étude, nous avons déterminé la séroprévalence et les facteurs de risque associés à la séroprévalence de T. gondii en utilisant un test immuno-enzymatique indirect (ELISA). Un total de 1853 échantillons de sérum ont été prélevés dans vingt-neuf comtés de la Ligue Xilin Gol ( n = 624), Hohhot City ( n = 225), Ordos City ( n = 158), Wulanchabu City ( n = 144), Bayan Nur City ( n = 114) et la ville de Hulunbeir ( n = 588). La séroprévalence globale de T. gondii était de 15,43 %. L’analyse des facteurs de risque a montré que le taux d’infection était plus élevé chez les ovins ≥ 12 mois (21,85 %) que chez les ovins <12 mois (10,20 %) ( p < 0,01). Les moutons mâles (18,76 %) avaient une séroprévalence plus élevée que les femelles (12,80 %) ( p < 0,01). Les moutons nourris à l’étable (23,13 %) avaient une séroprévalence plus élevée que ceux au pâturage (10,94 %) ( p < 0,01). La séroprévalence était significativement différente entre les différents districts ( p < 0,01). L’étude a montré que les moutons étaient exposés à T. gondii en Mongolie intérieure et a fourni une référence de données pour la santé publique et la lutte contre les maladies.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats: seroprevalence and potential risk factors under dairy husbandry practices.

          Sheep and goats are highly susceptible for infections with Toxoplasma gondii and may play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. The aim of this study was to obtain up-to-date data on T. gondii infection in small ruminants and to identify putative risk factors in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems most commonly applied in Greece. To this end, ELISA tests were established for the examination of sheep and goat sera based on the use of TgSAG1, a major surface antigen of T. gondii tachyzoites. Serum samples from 2-4 years old small ruminants, 1501 from sheep and 541 from goats were examined. These samples had been collected on 69 farms in a mountainous and in a costal environment of Northern Greece from September 2008 to January 2009. In addition to farms containing only sheep (n=28) and farms containing only goats (n=9) also mixed farms with both animal species (n=32) were sampled. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on putative risk factors. Sheep showed a higher seroprevalence (48.6% [729/1501]) for T. gondii than goats (30.7% [166/541]). Univariate multi-level modelling assuming random effects by the factor "farm" revealed that goats were statistically significantly less often seropositive than sheep (OR 0.475 [95% CI: 0.318-0.707]). No statistically significant regional differences in seroprevalence were observed. Risk factor analysis using univariate multi-level modelling revealed that sheep and goats that were kept under intensive (OR 4.30 [95% CI: 1.39-13.27]) or semi-intensive (OR 5.35 [95% CI: 2.33-12.28]) conditions had significantly higher odds of being seropositive. Further significant risk factors were "feeding concentrate" (OR 3.88 [95% CI: 1.81-8.29]) and providing "water from the public supply" (OR 1.67 [95% CI: 4.56-12.39]) to small ruminants.
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            Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

            Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined with the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25); 33 cats were seropositive. Hearts of all 36 cats were homogenized, digested in pepsin, and bioassayed in mice. Feces were examined for T. gondii oocysts by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from heart of 26 by bioassay in mice and from 25 seropositive and 1 seronegative cats. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassay in mice. In total, viable T. gondii was isolated from 27 of the 36 cats, and these isolates were designated TgCatEt1 to TgCatEt27. The high prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in feces of 8 (19.4%) of 36 cats is of high epidemiologic significance. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia.
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              Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan province, central China

              Sheep are highly susceptible to infections with Toxoplasma gondii and play a major role in the transmission of toxoplasmosis to humans. In the present study, 779 serum samples from sheep were collected from Henan province, central China from March 2015 to May 2016, and antibodies to T. gondii were detected by modified agglutination test (MAT). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep was 12.71% (99/779). The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were the geographical origin, age, presence of cats, and the rearing system. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Henan province, central China, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii with risk factors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                19 February 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Food Science and Engineering College of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University Hohhot 010018 PR China
                [2 ] Inner Mongolia Food Safety and Inspection Testing Center Hohhot 010090 PR China
                [3 ] Inner Mongolia KingGoal Technology Service Co., Ltd. Hohhot 010010 PR China
                Author notes
                [a]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Corresponding author: yanxinlei1987620@ 123456foxmail.com
                Article
                parasite200008 10.1051/parasite/2020008
                10.1051/parasite/2020008
                7029707
                32073396
                © X. Yan et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 22, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Article

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