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      Reprogramming of fatty acid metabolism in cancer

      review-article
      1 , 1 , 2 ,
      British Journal of Cancer
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Cancer metabolism, Lipid signalling

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          Abstract

          A common feature of cancer cells is their ability to rewire their metabolism to sustain the production of ATP and macromolecules needed for cell growth, division and survival. In particular, the importance of altered fatty acid metabolism in cancer has received renewed interest as, aside their principal role as structural components of the membrane matrix, they are important secondary messengers, and can also serve as fuel sources for energy production. In this review, we will examine the mechanisms through which cancer cells rewire their fatty acid metabolism with a focus on four main areas of research. (1) The role of de novo synthesis and exogenous uptake in the cellular pool of fatty acids. (2) The mechanisms through which molecular heterogeneity and oncogenic signal transduction pathways, such as PI3K–AKT–mTOR signalling, regulate fatty acid metabolism. (3) The role of fatty acids as essential mediators of cancer progression and metastasis, through remodelling of the tumour microenvironment. (4) Therapeutic strategies and considerations for successfully targeting fatty acid metabolism in cancer. Further research focusing on the complex interplay between oncogenic signalling and dysregulated fatty acid metabolism holds great promise to uncover novel metabolic vulnerabilities and improve the efficacy of targeted therapies.

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          Oxidized arachidonic and adrenic PEs navigate cells to ferroptosis.

          Enigmatic lipid peroxidation products have been claimed as the proximate executioners of ferroptosis-a specialized death program triggered by insufficiency of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Using quantitative redox lipidomics, reverse genetics, bioinformatics and systems biology, we discovered that ferroptosis involves a highly organized oxygenation center, wherein oxidation in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated compartments occurs on only one class of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs)) and is specific toward two fatty acyls-arachidonoyl (AA) and adrenoyl (AdA). Suppression of AA or AdA esterification into PE by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of acyl-CoA synthase 4 (ACSL4) acts as a specific antiferroptotic rescue pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX) generates doubly and triply-oxygenated (15-hydroperoxy)-diacylated PE species, which act as death signals, and tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E) suppress LOX and protect against ferroptosis, suggesting a homeostatic physiological role for vitamin E. This oxidative PE death pathway may also represent a target for drug discovery.
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            NK Cells Stimulate Recruitment of cDC1 into the Tumor Microenvironment Promoting Cancer Immune Control

            Summary Conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1) are critical for antitumor immunity, and their abundance within tumors is associated with immune-mediated rejection and the success of immunotherapy. Here, we show that cDC1 accumulation in mouse tumors often depends on natural killer (NK) cells that produce the cDC1 chemoattractants CCL5 and XCL1. Similarly, in human cancers, intratumoral CCL5, XCL1, and XCL2 transcripts closely correlate with gene signatures of both NK cells and cDC1 and are associated with increased overall patient survival. Notably, tumor production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) leads to evasion of the NK cell-cDC1 axis in part by impairing NK cell viability and chemokine production, as well as by causing downregulation of chemokine receptor expression in cDC1. Our findings reveal a cellular and molecular checkpoint for intratumoral cDC1 recruitment that is targeted by tumor-derived PGE2 for immune evasion and that could be exploited for cancer therapy.
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              Oncogenic Kras Maintains Pancreatic Tumors through Regulation of Anabolic Glucose Metabolism

              Tumor maintenance relies on continued activity of driver oncogenes, although their rate-limiting role is highly context dependent. Oncogenic Kras mutation is the signature event in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), serving a critical role in tumor initiation. Here, an inducible Kras(G12D)-driven PDAC mouse model establishes that advanced PDAC remains strictly dependent on Kras(G12D) expression. Transcriptome and metabolomic analyses indicate that Kras(G12D) serves a vital role in controlling tumor metabolism through stimulation of glucose uptake and channeling of glucose intermediates into the hexosamine biosynthesis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP). These studies also reveal that oncogenic Kras promotes ribose biogenesis. Unlike canonical models, we demonstrate that Kras(G12D) drives glycolysis intermediates into the nonoxidative PPP, thereby decoupling ribose biogenesis from NADP/NADPH-mediated redox control. Together, this work provides in vivo mechanistic insights into how oncogenic Kras promotes metabolic reprogramming in native tumors and illuminates potential metabolic targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit in PDAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                george.poulogiannis@icr.ac.uk
                Journal
                Br J Cancer
                Br. J. Cancer
                British Journal of Cancer
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                0007-0920
                1532-1827
                10 December 2019
                10 December 2019
                7 January 2020
                : 122
                : 1
                : 4-22
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1271 4623, GRID grid.18886.3f, Signalling and Cancer Metabolism Team, Division of Cancer Biology, , The Institute of Cancer Research, ; 237 Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JB UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2113 8111, GRID grid.7445.2, Division of Computational and Systems Medicine, Department of Surgery and Cancer, , Imperial College London, ; London, SW7 2AZ UK
                Article
                650
                10.1038/s41416-019-0650-z
                6964678
                31819192
                275ced7a-2854-46d5-9aa0-ec766b237d2a
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 16 July 2019
                : 21 October 2019
                : 1 November 2019
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Cancer Research UK 2020

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                cancer metabolism,lipid signalling
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                cancer metabolism, lipid signalling

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