+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      The mitochondrial permeability transition: a current perspective on its identity and role in ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a non-specific pore that opens in the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) when matrix [Ca(2+)] is high, especially when accompanied by oxidative stress, high [Pi] and adenine nucleotide depletion. Such conditions occur during ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion, when MPTP opening is known to occur and cause irreversible damage to the heart. Matrix cyclophilin D facilitates MPTP opening and is the target of its inhibition by cyclosporin A that is cardioprotective. Less certainty exists over the composition of the pore itself, with structural and/or regulatory roles proposed for the adenine nucleotide translocase, the phosphate carrier and the FoF1 ATP synthase. Here we critically review the supporting data for the role of each and suggest that they may interact with each other through their bound cardiolipin to form the ATP synthasome. We propose that under conditions favouring MPTP opening, calcium-triggered conformational changes in these proteins may perturb the interface between them generating the pore. Proteins associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), such as members of the Bcl-2 family and hexokinase (HK), whilst not directly involved in pore formation, may regulate MPTP opening through interactions between OMM and IMM proteins at "contact sites". Recent evidence suggests that cardioprotective protocols such as preconditioning inhibit MPTP opening at reperfusion by preventing the loss of mitochondrial bound HK2 that stabilises these contact sites. Contact site breakage both sensitises the MPTP to [Ca(2+)] and facilitates cytochrome c loss from the intermembrane space leading to greater ROS production and further MPTP opening. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Mitochondria: From Basic Mitochondrial Biology to Cardiovascular Disease".

          Related collections

          Author and article information

          J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
          Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology
          Jan 2015
          : 78
          [1 ] School of Biochemistry and Bristol CardioVascular, University of Bristol, Medical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK. Electronic address: a.halestrap@bristol.ac.uk.
          [2 ] School of Biochemistry and Bristol CardioVascular, University of Bristol, Medical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK.
          Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

          Adenine nucleotide translocase,Cyclophilin D,FoF1 ATP synthase,Hexokinase,Phosphate carrier,Preconditioning


          Comment on this article