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      Efficacy of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel against fleas in cats, under field conditions Translated title: Efficacité d’une nouvelle association topique d’esafoxolaner, d’éprinomectine et de praziquantel contre les puces chez les chats, dans des conditions de terrain

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          Abstract

          Esafoxolaner is a purified afoxolaner enantiomer with insecticidal and acaricidal properties. It is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel, nematodicidal and cestodicidal compounds, in a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. This novel formulation was tested in four field studies, in the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia. In all studies, naturally flea-infested domestic cats were treated with the novel formulation at the label dose and conditions of use. The main objective, identical in the four studies, was to assess efficacy on fleas, based on comparison of mean number of fleas found on infested cats before and one month after treatment. Tolerance to the product was also evaluated in the four studies. Otherwise, the studies had some differences in their design and secondary objectives, for example testing for a reduction in flea infestation-related cutaneous signs, testing of one treatment or of three monthly treatments, and use of a positive control group. In the four studies, a total of 307 cats were treated with the novel formulation. The reduction of fleas one month after treatment was 97.7%, 98.8%, 100% and 99.7% in the United States, Europe, Japan and Australia, respectively. There were no significant health abnormalities attributed to treatment in any of the studies.

          Translated abstract

          L’esafoxolaner est un énantiomère d’afoxolaner purifié aux propriétés insecticides et acaricides, et il est associé à l’éprinomectine et au praziquantel, des composés nématodicides et cestodicides, dans une nouvelle formulation d’endectoparasiticide topique pour chats. Cette nouvelle formulation a été testée dans quatre études sur le terrain, aux États-Unis, en Europe, au Japon et en Australie. Dans toutes les études, des chats domestiques naturellement infestés de puces ont été traités avec la nouvelle formulation à la dose et aux conditions d’utilisation indiquées sur l’étiquette. L’objectif principal, identique dans les quatre études, était d’évaluer l’efficacité contre les puces, sur la base de la comparaison du nombre moyen de puces trouvées sur des chats infestés avant et un mois après le traitement. La tolérance à l’application du produit a également été évaluée dans les quatre études. Sinon, les études présentaient des différences dans leur conception et leurs objectifs secondaires, par exemple test de réduction des signes cutanés liés à l’infestation par les puces, test d’un traitement ou de trois traitements mensuels, utilisation d’un groupe témoin positif. Dans les quatre études, un total de 307 chats ont été traités avec la nouvelle formulation. La réduction du nombre de puces un mois après le traitement était de 97,7 %, 98,8 %, 100 % et 99,7 % aux États-Unis, en Europe, au Japon et en Australie, respectivement. Aucune anomalie de santé significative n’a été attribuée au traitement dans aucune des études.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

          Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.
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            World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition: guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations on dogs and cats.

            These second edition guidelines, updated from the 2007 version (Marchiondo et al., 2007), are intended to assist the planning and conduct of laboratory and clinical studies to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides applied to dogs or cats for the purpose of treating, preventing and controlling flea and tick infestations. Major revisions to this second edition include guidelines on the assessment of systemic flea and tick products, an update of the geographical distribution of the common fleas and ticks species on dogs and cats, determination of flea and tick efficacy based on geometric versus arithmetic means with respect to geographic regulatory agencies, modification of tick categorization in the assessment of efficacy, expanded guidelines on repellency and anti-feeding effects, enhanced practical field study guidance, and considerations on the ranges of flea and ticks for infestations in laboratory studies. The term ectoparasiticide includes insecticidal and acaricidal compounds, as well as insect growth regulators. The range of biological activities from animal treatment that are considered include: repellency and anti-feeding effects, knockdown, speed of kill, immediate and persistent lethal effects, and interference with egg fertility and subsequent development of off-host life cycle stages. Information is provided on the selection of animals, dose determination, dose confirmation and field studies, record keeping, interpretation of results and animal welfare. These guidelines are also intended to assist regulatory authorities involved in the approval and registration of new topical or systemic ectoparasiticides, and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of harmonized procedures.
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              Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations.

              Flea and tick infestations are common and elimination can be expensive and time consuming. Many advances in control of fleas can be directly linked to improved knowledge of the intricacies of flea host associations, reproduction, and survival in the premises. Understanding tick biology and ecology is far more difficult than with fleas, because North America can have up to 9 different tick species infesting cats and dogs compared to 1 primary flea species. Effective tick control is more difficult to achieve than effective flea control, because of the abundance of potential alternative hosts in the tick life cycle. Many effective host-targeted tick control agents exist, several of which also possess activity against adult or immature fleas and other parasites.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2021
                02 April 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health 29 Avenue Tony Garnier 69007 Lyon France
                [2 ] Boehringer-Ingelheim Animal Health, Missouri Research Center 6498 Jade Rd. Fulton 65251 MO USA
                [3 ] Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Japan Co. Ltd. ThinkPark Tower, 2-1-1 Osaki Shinagawa-Ku 141-6017 Tokyo Japan
                [4 ] Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health (Pty) Ltd. 78 Waterloo Rd. North Ryde 2113 NSW Australia
                Author notes
                Article
                parasite190164 10.1051/parasite/2021018
                10.1051/parasite/2021018
                8019569
                © E. Tielemans et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Special Issue – NexGard ® Combo (esafoxolaner, eprinomectin, praziquantel): A new endectocide spot-on formulation for cats. Invited Editor: Frédéric Beugnet
                Research Article

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