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      Fibroblasts in an endocardial fibroelastosis disease model mainly originate from mesenchymal derivatives of epicardium

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          Lineage tracing.

          Lineage tracing is the identification of all progeny of a single cell. Although its origins date back to developmental biology of invertebrates in the 19(th) century, lineage tracing is now an essential tool for studying stem cell properties in adult mammalian tissues. Lineage tracing provides a powerful means of understanding tissue development, homeostasis, and disease, especially when it is combined with experimental manipulation of signals regulating cell-fate decisions. Recently, the combination of inducible recombinases, multicolor reporter constructs, and live-cell imaging has provided unprecedented insights into stem cell biology. Here we discuss the different experimental strategies currently available for lineage tracing, their associated caveats, and new opportunities to integrate lineage tracing with the monitoring of intracellular signaling pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Transforming growth factor-beta function blocking prevents myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded rats.

            Excessive myocardial fibrosis impairs cardiac function in hypertensive hearts. Roles of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in myocardial remodeling and cardiac dysfunction were examined in pressure-overloaded rats. Pressure overload was induced by a suprarenal aortic constriction in Wistar rats. Fibroblast activation (proliferation and phenotype transition to myofibroblasts) was observed after day 3 and peaked at days 3 to 7. Thereafter, myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis developed by day 28. At day 28, echocardiography showed normal left ventricular fractional shortening, but the decreased ratio of early to late filling velocity of the transmitral Doppler velocity and hemodynamic measurement revealed left ventricular end-diastolic pressure elevation, indicating normal systolic but abnormal diastolic function. Myocardial TGF-beta mRNA expression was induced after day 3, peaked at day 7, and remained modestly increased at day 28. An anti-TGF-beta neutralizing antibody, which was administered intraperitoneally daily from 1 day before operation, inhibited fibroblast activation and subsequently prevented collagen mRNA induction and myocardial fibrosis, but not myocyte hypertrophy. Neutralizing antibody reversed diastolic dysfunction without affecting blood pressure and systolic function. TGF-beta plays a causal role in myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction through fibroblast activation in pressure-overloaded hearts. Our findings may provide an insight into a new therapeutic strategy to prevent myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in pressure-overloaded hearts.
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              Adult cardiac-resident MSC-like stem cells with a proepicardial origin.

              Colony-forming units - fibroblast (CFU-Fs), analogous to those giving rise to bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are present in many organs, although the relationship between BM and organ-specific CFU-Fs in homeostasis and tissue repair is unknown. Here we describe a population of adult cardiac-resident CFU-Fs (cCFU-Fs) that occupy a perivascular, adventitial niche and show broad trans-germ layer potency in vitro and in vivo. CRE lineage tracing and embryo analysis demonstrated a proepicardial origin for cCFU-Fs. Furthermore, in BM transplantation chimeras, we found no interchange between BM and cCFU-Fs after aging, myocardial infarction, or BM stem cell mobilization. BM and cardiac and aortic CFU-Fs had distinct CRE lineage signatures, indicating that they arise from different progenitor beds during development. These diverse origins for CFU-Fs suggest an underlying basis for differentiation biases seen in different CFU-F populations, and could also influence their capacity for participating in tissue repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell Research
                Cell Res
                Springer Nature
                1001-0602
                1748-7838
                August 15 2017
                August 15 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/cr.2017.103
                © 2017
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