+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A comprehensive and user‐friendly framework for 3D‐data visualisation in invertebrates and other organisms

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Methods for 3D‐imaging of biological samples are experiencing unprecedented development, with tools such as X‐ray micro‐computed tomography (μCT) becoming more accessible to biologists. These techniques are inherently suited to small subjects and can simultaneously image both external and internal morphology, thus offering considerable benefits for invertebrate research. However, methods for visualising 3D‐data are trailing behind the development of tools for generating such data. Our aim in this article is to make the processing, visualisation and presentation of 3D‐data easier, thereby encouraging more researchers to utilise 3D‐imaging. Here, we present a comprehensive workflow for manipulating and visualising 3D‐data, including basic and advanced options for producing images, videos and interactive 3D‐PDFs, from both volume and surface‐mesh renderings. We discuss the importance of visualisation for quantitative analysis of invertebrate morphology from 3D‐data, and provide example figures illustrating the different options for generating 3D‐figures for publication. As more biology journals adopt 3D‐PDFs as a standard option, research on microscopic invertebrates and other organisms can be presented in high‐resolution 3D‐figures, enhancing the way we communicate science.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 23

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The tempo and mode of three-dimensional morphological evolution in male reproductive structures.

          Various evolutionary forces may shape the evolution of traits that influence the mating decisions of males and females. Phenotypic traits that males and females use to judge the species identify of potential mates should evolve in a punctuated fashion, changing significantly at the time of speciation but changing little between speciation events. In contrast, traits experiencing sexual selection or sexually antagonistic interactions are generally expected to change continuously over time because of the directional selection pressures imposed on one sex by the actions of the other. To test these hypotheses, we used spherical harmonic representations of the shapes of male mating structures in reconstructions of the evolutionary tempo of these structures across the history of the Enallagma damselfly clade. Our analyses show that the evolution of these structures is completely consistent with a punctuated model of evolutionary change and a constant evolutionary rate throughout the clade's history. In addition, no interpopulation variation in shape was detected across the range of one species. These results indicate that male mating structures in this genus are used primarily for identifying the species of potential mates and experience little or no selection from intraspecific sexual selection or sexual antagonism. The implications of these results for speciation are discussed.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            A New Dimension in Documenting New Species: High-Detail Imaging for Myriapod Taxonomy and First 3D Cybertype of a New Millipede Species (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae)

            We review the state-of-the-art approaches currently applied in myriapod taxonomy, and we describe, for the first time, a new species of millipede (Ommatoiulus avatar n. sp., family Julidae) using high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) as a substantive adjunct to traditional morphological examination. We present 3D models of the holotype and paratype specimens and discuss the potential of this non-destructive technique in documenting new species of millipedes and other organisms. The microCT data have been uploaded to an open repository (Dryad) to serve as the first actual millipede cybertypes to be published.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found
              Is Open Access

              Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

              We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                [ 1 ] Division of Ecology and Evolution Research School of Biology, The Australian National University Acton Australia
                [ 2 ] Department of Terrestrial Zoology Western Australian Museum Perth Western Australia Australia
                [ 3 ] Centre for Evolutionary Biology The University of Western Australia Perth Western Australia Australia
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Thomas L. Semple, Division of Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Acton, ACT 2601, Australia.

                Email: thomas.semple@

                J Morphol
                J. Morphol
                Journal of Morphology
                John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
                17 January 2019
                February 2019
                : 280
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1002/jmor.v280.2 )
                : 223-231
                © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Morphology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 9, Words: 7177
                Funded by: Australian Government, Research Training Program (RTP) Scholarship
                Funded by: Linnean Society of NSW, John Noble Award for Invertebrate Research
                Funded by: Australian National University
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                February 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.6.4 mode:remove_FC converted:24.06.2019

                pdf, blender, computed tomography, drishti, meshlab


                Comment on this article