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      Metabolomics analysis and rapid identification of changes in chemical ingredients in crude and processed Astragali Radix by UPLC-QTOF-MS combined with novel informatics UNIFI platform

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          Abstract

          Astragali Radix, the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao or Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge., is widely used as a tonic decoction pieces in the clinic of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Astragali Radix has various processed products with varying pharmacological actions. There is no modern scientific evidence to explain the differences in pharmacological activities and related mechanisms. In the present study, we explore the changes in chemical components in Astragali Radix after processing, by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) combined with novel informatics UNIFI platform and multivariate statistical analysis. Our results showed that the crude and various processed products could be clearly separated in PCA scores plot and 15 significant markers could be used to distinguish crude and various processed products by OPLS-DA in UNIFI platform. In conclusion, the present study provided a basis of chemical components for revealing connotation of different processing techniques on Astragali Radix.

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          Opinion: understanding 'global' systems biology: metabonomics and the continuum of metabolism.

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            UPLC-QTOF-MS identification of metabolites in rat biosamples after oral administration of Dioscorea saponins: a comparative study.

            Among the 49 species of the genus Dioscorea distributed in China, Dioscorea nipponica Makino (DN), Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burkill (DP), and Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright (DZ) possess more or less similar traditional therapeutic actions, such as activating blood, relieving pain, and dispersing swelling; they have been used as folk medicine in China since 1950s. The modern pharmaceutical industry has developed these three species as herbal medicines that have been used for decades for treating cardiovascular diseases. However, there is no available information in the literature explaining how their chemical components are converted and interrelated in vivo to support their efficacies. The present study aimed to a) compare the metabolic profiles of saponins from DN, DP and DZ, which are considered to be their bioactive components, and b) to compare the changes in sustained levels of metabolites from rat biosamples.
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              Chemical quantification and antioxidant assay of four active components in Ficus hirta root using UPLC-PAD-MS fingerprinting combined with cluster analysis

              Background Root of Ficus hirta (RFH) is widely consumed in China as a plant-derived popular food. However, contents of the active constituents of RFH are unknown, and the chemical as well as bioactive properties of RFH may be affected by growing area. In order to ensure the standard efficacy of health products made with RFH, its active constituents should firstly be determined and, secondly, a means of assessing samples for their contents of these constituents is needed. Results Four active components, including two coumarins, namely psoralen and bergapten, and two flavonoids, namely luteolin and apigenin, in twenty RFH samples were quantified using a new ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and mass spectrometry (UPLC-PAD-MS) method, and the content level in descending order was psoralen > bergapten > luteolin > apigenin. Chromatographic fingerprint similarity evaluation and cluster analysis were used to assess geographical origin of RFH, and the results revealed a high level of similarity for the tested RFH samples obtained from Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi provinces and Hong Kong. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potencies of the four components, and the results clearly demonstrated that luteolin was most effective; apigenin exhibited a moderate potency, whereas psoralen and bergapten possessed little effect against free radical reactions. Structure-activity relationship of the components was elucidated, and the 3′-hydroxyl group of luteolin was found to be directly responsible for its antioxidant activity. Conclusion The present UPLC-PAD-MS method and DPPH radical scavenging assay performed well for the purpose of constituent quantification and antioxidant assay. Global profiles were highly similar for RFH samples from different origins. Both the coumarins and flavonoids were involved in the health benefit of RFH.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 September 2018
                : 16
                : 9
                : 714-720
                Affiliations
                1School of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dalian 116600, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: JIA Tian-Zhu, Tel: 86-411-85890135, E-mail: tianzhujia-0411@ 123456163.com

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(18)30111-0
                10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30111-0
                30269848
                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: Construction Foundation of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine to the Processing Technology Heritage Base of TCM, Special Fund of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine to the Industry of TCM
                Award ID: 20110700711
                This work was supported by the Construction Foundation of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine to the Processing Technology Heritage Base of TCM, Special Fund of the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine to the Industry of TCM (No. 20110700711).

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