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Helicobacter is preserved in yeast vacuoles! Does Koch's postulates confirm it?

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      Abstract

      The manuscript titled “Vacuoles of Candida yeast behave as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)” not only has not been prepared in a scientific manner but the methodology used was not adequate, and therefore the conclusion reached was not correct. First of all, “yeast” is a broad terminology covering a great number of genera and species of unicellular micro-organisms. The authors should have defined the organism with its binary scientific name. This measure would allow experiment reproduction by the scientific community. Moreover, the criteria established by Robert Koch to identify a specific microorganism or pathogen was not adopted in the methodology used. Regarding the methodology applied, use of the chicken egg-yolk (IgY) antibody and PCR of the apparently tainted yeast population to prove H. pylori existence in the yeast vacuoles might be main factors for their wrong conclusions. Bacterial tropism toward yeast extract is a known phenomenon, and yeast extract is one of the main ingredients in culture media. Their internalization through phagocytosis or similar pathways does not seem possible or practical because of the thick and cellulosic yeast wall. While the small size of yeast cells does not support their ability in harboring several H. pylori, other observations such as inefficiency of anti-fungal therapy as anti-Helicobacter therapy strongly reject the conclusion reached by the above-mentioned article.

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      Free-living amoebae promote growth and survival of Helicobacter pylori.

      Transmission routes of Helicobacter pylori remain poorly understood. The finding of bacterial DNA in water suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Here we report successful co-cultivation of H. pylori with Acanthamoeba castellanii, which circumvents the requirement of this bacterium for precise microaerobic conditions and a large supply of nutrients in order to grow. H. pylori was able to propagate and remain viable for several weeks in the presence of amoebae under experimental conditions. Intact, metabolically active bacteria could be demonstrated in vacuoles. The putative dependence of H. pylori on free-living amoebae in nature could be important with respect to transmission and prevalence, as shown for some other pathogenic bacteria.
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        Genotyping of Acanthamoeba isolated from water in recreational areas of Tehran, Iran.

        A comprehensive survey assessing the presence of Acanthamoeba was conducted on 50 samples from water sources in parks and public squares from 22 municipal districts of Tehran, Iran. The prevalence and genotypes of Acanthamoeba were determined by PCR and the PCR fragments of ribosomal RNA genes sequenced. Sixteen (32%) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. Sequence analysis revealed that the positive isolates belonged to the T4 and T5 genotypes. Fourteen isolates (87.5%) were T4, and two (12.5%) were T5. Acanthamoeba may be a problematic organism for contact lens wearers and for immunocompromised individuals. In Iran, Acanthamoeba keratitis has increased in recent years, mainly due to poor hygiene in contact lens wearers. A thorough survey for the prevalence of this amoeba could have a significant role in prevention of disease. This is the first report of the T5 genotype from water in recreational areas of Tehran.
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          Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in four districts of Uganda: role of geographic location, education and water sources

          Background The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection varies in relation to geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. Available data on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Uganda are not representative of the general population. We sought to describe the epidemiology of this infection in pregnant women in Uganda to provide background data for a study into the effect of H. pylori infection during pregnancy on the hematological response to iron supplementation. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, H. pylori infection was assessed by the stool antigen test among 447 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in Apac, Mbale, Mbarara and Rakai Districts which are in different geographical regions in Uganda, and at Kawempe Health Center which serves a low-income densely populated area in Kampala City. Socio-demographic and household data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Associations between H. pylori infection and socio-demographic and household characteristics were analyzed using logistic regression. Results The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 45.2% but varied by geographical location from 18.2% in Apac District to 60.5% at Kawempe Health Centre. At 18.4%, the Langi ethnic group, who were enrolled exclusively in Apac District, had the lowest prevalence of H. pylori infection while the Gisu had the highest prevalence (58.4%). H. pylori was independently associated with enrollment at clinics not in Apac (adjusted OR = 5.68; 95% CI: 3.02-10.7) and with using water from public wells, boreholes or springs (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI: 1.19-8.61) and from rivers, lakes or streams (AOR = 5.20; 95% CI: 1.58-17.05). Urban residence (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.13-2.60) and no formal education (AOR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.03-3.67) were also independently associated with H. pylori infection. Conclusions The unexpected variation in the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Uganda calls for population-based studies in the region and offers an opportunity to study the transmission dynamics of H. pylori infection. The association between H. pylori infection and surface water sources for household use suggests waterborne transmission of H. pylori infection highlighting the need for concerted efforts in environmental health in communities and at the household level.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Nader Alipour, Department of Medical Microbiology and Biotechnology, DEU University and Graduate of Middle East Technical university (METU), Ankara 06800, Turkey
            Nasrin Gaeini, Sıfa Medical Center, Tatlikuyu, Gebze 51338, Kocaeli, Turkey
            Author notes

            Author contributions: Alipour N and Gaeini N contributed equally to this work; Alipour N wrote the paper; Gaeini N verified its medical aspects.

            Correspondence to: Nasrin Gaeini, MD, Sıfa Medical Center, Tatlikuyu, Gebze 51338, Kocaeli, Turkey. nalipoure@ 123456yahoo.com

            Telephone: +90-554-6162952 Fax: +90-262-6412926

            Journal
            World J Gastroenterol
            World J. Gastroenterol
            WJG
            World Journal of Gastroenterology
            Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
            1007-9327
            2219-2840
            28 March 2017
            28 March 2017
            : 23
            : 12
            : 2266-2268
            5374140
            jWJG.v23.i12.pg2266
            10.3748/wjg.v23.i12.2266
            ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

            This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial.

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