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      Differential impact of simultaneous migration on coevolving hosts and parasites


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          The dynamics of antagonistic host-parasite coevolution are believed to be crucially dependent on the rate of migration between populations. We addressed how the rate of simultaneous migration of host and parasite affected resistance and infectivity evolution of coevolving meta-populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens and a viral parasite (bacteriophage). The increase in genetic variation resulting from small amounts of migration is expected to increase rates of adaptation of both host and parasite. However, previous studies suggest phages should benefit more from migration than bacteria; because in the absence of migration, phages are more genetically limited and have a lower evolutionary potential compared to the bacteria.


          The results supported the hypothesis: migration increased the resistance of bacteria to their local (sympatric) hosts. Moreover, migration benefited phages more than hosts with respect to 'global' (measured with respect to the whole range of migration regimes) patterns of resistance and infectivity, because of the differential evolutionary responses of bacteria and phage to different migration regimes. Specifically, we found bacterial global resistance peaked at intermediate rates of migration, whereas phage global infectivity plateaued when migration rates were greater than zero.


          These results suggest that simultaneous migration of hosts and parasites can dramatically affect the interaction of host and parasite. More specifically, the organism with the lower evolutionary potential may gain the greater evolutionary advantage from migration.

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          Antagonistic coevolution between a bacterium and a bacteriophage.

          Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites is believed to play a pivotal role in host and parasite population dynamics, the evolutionary maintenance of sex and the evolution of parasite virulence. Furthermore, antagonistic coevolution is believed to be responsible for rapid differentiation of both hosts and parasites between geographically structured populations. Yet empirical evidence for host-parasite antagonistic coevolution, and its impact on between-population genetic divergence, is limited. Here we demonstrate a long-term arms race between the infectivity of a viral parasite (bacteriophage; phage) and the resistance of its bacterial host. Coevolution was largely driven by directional selection, with hosts becoming resistant to a wider range of parasite genotypes and parasites infective to a wider range of host genotypes. Coevolution followed divergent trajectories between replicate communities despite establishment with isogenic bacteria and phage, and resulted in bacteria adapted to their own, compared with other, phage populations.
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            Linking genetic change to community evolution: insights from studies of bacteria and bacteriophage

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              Local adaptation, evolutionary potential and host-parasite coevolution: interactions between migration, mutation, population size and generation time


                Author and article information

                BMC Evol Biol
                BMC Evolutionary Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                10 January 2007
                : 7
                : 1
                [1 ]Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                [2 ]School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
                [3 ]Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA
                Copyright © 2007 Morgan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 July 2006
                : 10 January 2007
                Research Article

                Evolutionary Biology
                Evolutionary Biology


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