Meta-analyses of sex differences in physical aggression to heterosexual partners and
in its physical consequences are reported. Women were slightly more likely (d = -.05)
than men to use one or more act of physical aggression and to use such acts more frequently.
Men were more likely (d = .15) to inflict an injury, and overall, 62% of those injured
by a partner were women. The findings partially support previous claims that different
methods of measurement produce conflicting results, but there was also evidence that
the sample was an important moderator of effect size. Continuous models showed that
younger aged dating samples and a lower proportion of physically aggressive males
predicted effect sizes in the female direction. Analyses were limited by the available
database, which is biased toward young dating samples in the United States. Wider
variations are discussed in terms of two conflicting norms about physical aggression
to partners that operate to different degrees in different cultures.