To evaluate the impact of posterior corneal astigmatism on outcomes with toric intraocular lenses (IOLs). Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Case series. Corneal astigmatism was measured using 5 devices before and 3 weeks after cataract surgery. Toric IOL alignment was recorded at surgery and at the slitlamp 3 weeks postoperatively. The actual corneal astigmatism was calculated based on refractive astigmatism 3 weeks postoperatively and the effective toric power calculated with the Holladay 2 formula. The prediction error was calculated as the difference between the astigmatism measured by each device and the actual corneal astigmatism. Vector analysis was used in all calculations. With the IOLMaster, Lenstar, Atlas, manual keratometer, and Galilei (combined Placido-dual Scheimpflug analyzer), the mean prediction errors (D) were, respectively, 0.59 @ 89.7, 0.48 @ 91.2, 0.51 @ 78.7, 0.62 @ 97.2, and 0.57 @ 93.9 for with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism (60 to 120 degrees), and 0.17 @ 86.2, 0.23 @ 77.7, 0.23 @ 91.4, 0.41 @ 58.4, and 0.12 @ 7.3 for against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism (0 to 30 degrees and 150 to 180 degrees). In the WTR eyes, there were significant WTR prediction errors (0.5 to 0.6 diopters [D]) by all devices. In ATR eyes, WTR prediction errors were 0.2 to 0.3 D by all devices except the Placido-dual Scheimpflug analyzer (all P<.05 with Bonferroni correction). Corneal astigmatism was overestimated in WTR by all devices and underestimated in ATR by all except the Placido-dual Scheimpflug analyzer. A new toric IOL nomogram is proposed. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.