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      Varying but reduced use of postoperative mobilization restrictions after primary total hip arthroplasty in Nordic countries: a questionnaire-based study

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          Background and purpose — Mobilization has traditionally been restricted following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in an attempt to reduce the risk of dislocation and muscle detachment. However, recent studies have questioned the effect and rationale underlying such restrictions. We investigated the use of postoperative restrictions and possible differences in mobilization protocols following primary THA in Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO), and Sweden (SWE).

          Patients and methods — All hospitals performing primary THA in the participating countries were identified from the latest national THA registry report. A questionnaire containing questions regarding standard surgical procedure, use of restrictions, and postoperative mobilization protocol was distributed to all hospitals through national representatives for each arthroplasty registry.

          Results — 83% to 94% (n = 167) of the 199 hospitals performing THA in DK, FIN, NO, and SWE returned correctly filled out questionnaires. A posterolateral approach was used by 77% of the hospitals. 92% of the hospitals had a standardized mobilization protocol. 50%, 41%, 19%, and 38% of the hospitals in DK, FIN, NO, and SWE, respectively, did not have any postoperative restrictions. If utilized, restrictions were applied for a median of 6 weeks. Two-thirds of all hospitals have changed their mobilization protocol within the last 5 years—all but 2 to a less restrictive protocol.

          Interpretation — Use of postoperative restrictions following primary THA differs between the Nordic countries, with 19% to 50% allowing mobilization without any restrictions. There has been a strong tendency towards less restrictive mobilization over the last 5 years.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Factors predisposing to dislocation after primary total hip arthroplasty: a multivariate analysis.

          We conducted this study to determine the relative influence of various mechanical and patient-related factors on the incidence of dislocation after primary total hip asthroplasty (THA). Of 2,023 THAs, 21 patients who had at least 1 dislocation were compared with a control group of 21 patients without dislocation, matched for age, gender, pathology, and year of surgery. Implant positioning, seniority of the surgeon, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, and diminished motor coordination were recorded. Data analysis included univariate and multivariate methods. The dislocation risk was 6.9 times higher if total anteversion was not between 40 degrees and 60 degrees and 10 times higher in patients with high ASA scores. Surgeons should pay attention to total anteversion (cup and stem) of THA. The ASA score should be part of the preoperative assessment of the dislocation risk.
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            Femoral head size is a risk factor for total hip luxation: a study of 42,987 primary hip arthroplasties from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register.

            On the basis of the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, which has recorded nearly all primary hip prostheses and revisions in Norway since 1987, we studied risk factors for prosthesis luxation leading to revision. 7 prosthesis brand combinations used in 42,987 primary operations were included from 1987-2000. We found that femoral head size was an important risk factor; 28 mm heads led to revision more often than 32 mm ones (failure rate ratio (FRR) 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-7.3). Charnley (22 mm head) performed equally well or better than the 28 mm heads. The Exeter stem and cup is the type of prosthesis on the Norwegian market with more than two femoral head sizes (26, 28, 30, 32 mm) and 26 mm heads led to revision due to luxation significantly more often than 30 mm heads (FRR 4.1, 95%CI 2.2-8.1). Old age, preoperative diagnosis, and choice of prosthesis brand combination were also important factors affecting the revision rate due to luxation. A posterior approach increased the risk of revision more than a lateral one (FRR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5). Gender, trochanteric osteotomy and duration of the operation did not affect the results.
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              Epidemiology of dislocation after total hip arthroplasty.

              Instability after total hip arthroplasty is an important complication. It usually occurs in the immediate postoperative period, but the risk also increases with time. There are numerous surgical treatment options, but they have relatively unpredictable outcomes. Numerous factors are associated with dislocation, but research has mainly focused on surgical factors. Epidemiological factors remain the subject of much debate. We aimed to establish the most significant epidemiological factors in Scotland and in particular the dislocation rate in neuromuscular conditions. The Scottish National arthroplasty nonvoluntary registry is based on SMR01 records (Scottish Morbidity Record) data. We analyzed the Scottish National Arthroplasty Project to find patients' dislocation rates up to 1 year postoperatively for surgeon volume, age, gender, previous surgery, diagnosis, and followup duration. There were 14,314 total hip arthroplasties performed from April 1996 to March 2004 with an annual incidence of dislocation of 1.9%. We found an association between rate of dislocation with age, surgical volume, and previous fracture. However, there was no increase in the rate of dislocation associated with gender or with diagnoses of stroke or Parkinson's disease. Our prognostic assessment of dislocation risk allows assessment for methods of reducing dislocation in high risk patients.

                Author and article information

                Acta Orthop
                Acta Orthop
                Acta Orthopaedica
                Taylor & Francis
                April 2019
                11 February 2019
                : 90
                : 2
                : 143-147
                [a ] Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre , Denmark;
                [b ] Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry ;
                [c ] Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg, Sweden;
                [d ] Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register ;
                [e ] The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital , Bergen, Norway;
                [f ] Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen , Norway;
                [g ] Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement, and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere , Tampere, Finland;
                [h ] Finnish Hip Arthroplasty Registry
                Author notes
                © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Nordic Orthopedic Federation.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 8, Words: 3629



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