Blog
About

4
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Atherosclerosis and Vascular Calcification in Chronic Renal Failure

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Cardiovascular complications are a major clinical problem in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure; cardiac death accounts for approximately 40–50% of all deaths in these patients. Death from cardiovascular causes is up to 20 times more common in uremic patients than in the general population with the risk being even higher than in patients with diabetes mellitus. A high rate of myocardial infarction and excessive cardiac mortality have repeatedly been documented in patients with kidney disease and renal failure. Not only is the prevalence of myocardial infarction high, but also the case fatality rate is significantly higher in uremic patients with and without diabetes, respectively, compared to nonuremic patients. This is of particular interest since the prevalence of coronary atheroma in uremic patients was shown to be approximately 30% by autopsy and coronary angiography studies. Thus, coronary factors, i.e. atherosclerosis, and non-coronary factors may play an important role in the genesis of cardiac complications in the renal patient. In addition, renal failure recently has also be identified as a predictor of mortality in different stages of peripheral vascular disease. In particular, marked differences in the pathogenesis, morphology and course of atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis under the conditions of renal failure have been documented. Among others increased plaque formation and particularly higher proportion and intensity of vascular calcification have been found in clinical and autopsy studies. In addition to the so-called classical or traditional risk factors, an important role for nonclassical risk factors such as microinflammation, hyperphosphatemia and oxidative stress has been documented in patients with renal failure and is discussed in detail.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 41

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Accelerated atherosclerosis in prolonged maintenance hemodialysis.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Electron beam computed tomography in the evaluation of cardiac calcification in chronic dialysis patients.

              The purpose of this study was to assess the value of electron beam computed tomography in the detection of cardiac calcifications in coronaries and valves of dialysis patients and to determine the rate at which calcification progresses. Forty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients aged 28 to 74 years were compared with 102 non-dialysis patients aged 32 to 73 years with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, all of whom underwent coronary angiography. We used high-resolution electron beam computed tomography scanning to make 30 axial slices with a distance of 3 mm between each slice. The number of calcifications, the surface area, and the average and highest density values were measured. We calculated a quantitative coronary artery calcium score and assessed calcification of mitral and aortic valves. In dialysis patients, the measurements were repeated after 12 months. The coronary artery calcium score was from 2.5-fold to fivefold higher in the dialysis patients than in the non-dialysis patients. Hypertensive dialysis patients had higher calcium scores than non-hypertensive dialysis patients (P < 0.05). A stepwise, multiple regression analysis confirmed the importance of age and hypertension. No correlation between calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone values and the coronary calcium score was identified; however, the calcium score was inversely correlated with bone mass in the dialysis patients (r = 0.47, P < 0.05). The mitral valve was calcified in 59% of dialysis patients, while the aortic valve was calcified in 55%. The coronary artery calcium score was correlated with aortic valvular, but not mitral valvular calcification. A repeat examination of the dialysis patients at an interval of 1 year showed a disturbing tendency for progression. Our data under-score the frequency and severity of coronary and valvular calcifications in dialysis patients, and illustrate the rapid progression of this calcification. Finally, they draw attention to hypertension as an important risk factor in this process.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8058-8
                978-3-318-01305-4
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2005
                March 2006
                20 March 2006
                : 28
                : 5-6
                : 280-289
                Affiliations
                Departments of Pathology, Cardiac Surgery and Internal Medicine, Med. II and Med. IV, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany
                Article
                90182 Kidney Blood Press Res 2005;28:280–289
                10.1159/000090182
                16534222
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 71, Pages: 10
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90182
                Categories
                Managing Coronary Heart Disease in Chronic Uremia

                Comments

                Comment on this article