Objective The cross-sectional study examined associations between gross motor competence and physical fitness in 3-5 years old children.
Methods A convenient sampling method was used to select 201 children aged 3-5 years, to assess gross motor competence, each child accomplished the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 (TGMD-3). The level of physical fitness was measured by National Physical Fitness Test, comprising eight different tasks including height, weight, flexibility (sit-and-reach test), balance (walking on a balance beam), explosive force (Standing long jump), strength (Tennis ball throwing), agility (10-shuttle-run test), strength and coordination (Continuous foot jump).
Results With the increase of age, the scores of locomotor skills, object control skills, gross motor competence, height, weight, walking on a balance beam, continuous foot jump, tennis ball throwing and standing long jump were better ( P<0.01). Significant differences were not found in the gross motor competence, locomotor skills, 10-shuttle-run test, continuous foot jump, standing long jump and walking on a balance beam ( P>0.05). In the object control skills and tennis ball throwing, the boys showed a greater performance ( P<0.01). In the sit-and-reach test, girls showed a greater performance ( P< 0. 01). The results revealed a significant relationship between gross motor competence and the following items: 10-shuttle-run test, continuous foot jump, standing long jump, walking on a balance beam, tennis ball throwing ( P<0.05). There were no associations among gross motor competence, BMI ( r= 0.02), sit-and-reach test ( r= 0.07). There were no associations between gross motor competence and physical fitness in 3-5 years old ( r = -0.13-0.21), except for 5 years old children’ s object control skills and continuous foot jump ( r = 0.42). Sex, age, height, BMI (R 2 = 0.05, F = 2.62, P>0.05) as well as gross motor competence (AR 2 = 0.04, F = 2.00, P>0.05) did not predict physical fitness.
Conclusion The results indicated a relationship between motor competence and physical fitness in 3-5 years old. In order to increase the level of physical fitness, the educators should pay attention to the development of children’ s gross motor.
【摘要】 目的 探讨3~5岁幼儿大肌肉动作发展与体适能水平之间的关系, 为促进大肌肉动作和体适能的健康发展 提供参考。 方法 采用方便抽样的方法选取北京市某幼儿园201名3~5岁幼儿, 采用大肌肉动作发展测试量表第3版 (Test of Gross Motor Development-Third Version, TGMD-3)评价幼儿的大肌肉动作发展水平；采用《国民体质测定标准手册 (幼儿部分) 》测量与评定身体形态指标 (身髙、体重) 和身体素质指标 (10 m折返跑、双脚连续跳、走平衡木、坐位体前屈、 立定跳远、网球掷远) 水平。 结果 3~5岁幼儿的位移动作、实物操控动作、大肌肉动作水平及身髙、体重、走平衡木、双脚 连续跳、网球掷远、立定跳远的成绩随着年龄增加而提髙 ( P值均<0.01)。不同性别3~5岁幼儿的大肌肉动作水平、位移 动作和10 m折返跑、双脚连续跳、立定跳远、走平衡木差异均无统计学意义 ( P值均>0.05);3~5岁男童的实物操控能力和 网球掷远成绩髙于女生, 坐位体前屈成绩低于女生 ( P值均<0.05)。3~5岁幼儿的大肌肉动作发展与10 m折返跑、网球掷 远、双脚连续跳、立定跳远、走平衡木成绩的相关均有统计学意义 ( P值均<0.05);而与幼儿的体质量指数、坐位体前屈的相 关无统计学意义 (r值分别为0.02, 0.07, P值均>0.05)。3, 4岁组幼儿的大肌肉动作发展和体适能各项测试指标的相关无 统计学意义 ( r = -0.13~0.21, P值均>0.05), 5岁组幼儿的实物操控能力和双脚连续跳成绩的相关有统计学意义 ( r = 0.42, P <0.05)。多元线性回归分析显示, 年龄、性别、BMI对幼儿的体适能无预测作用 (fi 2=0.05, F =2.ffi, P>0.05), 大肌肉动作水 平对于幼儿的体适能无预测作用 ( R调整=0.04, F =2.00, P>0.05)。结论3~5岁幼儿的大肌肉动作发展和体适能水平相 关。幼儿工作者应重视幼儿大肌肉动作发展的监测和促进, 以利于提髙幼儿的体适能健康水平。