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      Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) Leaves

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d1984842e195">We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their <i>in vitro</i> activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive ( <i>Bacillus cereus</i>, <i>B. subtilis</i> and <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>), Gram negative bacteria ( <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, <i>Escherichia coli</i> and <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i>) and fungi ( <i>Candida albicans</i> and <i>Cryptococcus neoformans</i>). Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7- <i>O</i>-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7- <i>O</i>-glucoside and luteolin 4’- <i>O</i>-glucoside. At low concentrations olive leafs extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great potential as nutraceuticals, particulalry as a source of phenolic compounds. </p>

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          Most cited references 23

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          Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals.

           Rui Hai Liu (2003)
          Cardiovascular disease and cancer are ranked as the first and second leading causes of death in the United States and in most industrialized countries. Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer disease, cataracts, and some of the functional declines associated with aging. Prevention is a more effective strategy than is treatment of chronic diseases. Functional foods that contain significant amounts of bioactive components may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition and play important roles in the prevention of chronic diseases. The key question is whether a purified phytochemical has the same health benefit as does the whole food or mixture of foods in which the phytochemical is present. Our group found, for example, that the vitamin C in apples with skin accounts for only 0.4% of the total antioxidant activity, suggesting that most of the antioxidant activity of fruit and vegetables may come from phenolics and flavonoids in apples. We propose that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables are responsible for their potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods.
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            Antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds from berries.

            To investigate the antimicrobial properties of phenolic compounds present in Finnish berries against probiotic bacteria and other intestinal bacteria, including pathogenic species. Antimicrobial activity of pure phenolic compounds representing flavonoids and phenolic acids, and eight extracts from common Finnish berries, was measured against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, including probiotic bacteria and the intestinal pathogen Salmonella. Antimicrobial activity was screened by an agar diffusion method and bacterial growth was measured in liquid culture as a more accurate assay. Myricetin inhibited the growth of all lactic acid bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract flora but it did not affect the Salmonella strain. In general, berry extracts inhibited the growth of Gram-negative but not Gram-positive bacteria. These variations may reflect differences in cell surface structures between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cloudberry, raspberry and strawberry extracts were strong inhibitors of Salmonella. Sea buckthorn berry and blackcurrant showed the least activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Different bacterial species exhibit different sensitivities towards phenolics. These properties can be utilized in functional food development and in food preservative purposes.
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              Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

              Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                MOLEFW
                Molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI AG
                1420-3049
                May 2007
                May 26 2007
                : 12
                : 5
                : 1153-1162
                Article
                10.3390/12051153
                6149345
                17873849
                © 2007
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/12/5/1153

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