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      Safety and Effectiveness of Microvascular Decompression for the Treatment of Hemifacial Spasm in the Elderly

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          Abstract

          Background: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a common disorder and has a significant impact on the quality of life. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with HFS, however the effectiveness and safety of MVD in elderly patients with HFS is not clear. Methods: We enrolled 699 HFS patients who underwent MVD from February 2008 to December 2011 at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. Subjects were divided into two groups: an elderly group (patients who were 60 years old or older) and a younger group. We compared demographic and clinical data, surgical outcome and complications after MVD between the groups. Results: The elderly group had more severe spasms and higher grade indentation than the younger group. Multiple offending vessels were more commonly detected in the elderly group. Although the improvement was similar 6 months after MVD between the groups, complications were more common in the elderly group even after controlling for possible confounding factors. In particular, ear problems including hearing loss were more common in the elderly group. Conclusion: MVD is an effective treatment option in elderly patients with HFS. However, surgeons should be pay attention to potential complications in elderly patients with HFS.

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          Most cited references25

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          Hemifacial spasm: clinical findings and treatment.

          Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a peripherally induced movement disorder characterized by involuntary, unilateral, intermittent, irregular, tonic or clonic contractions of muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve. We reviewed the clinical features and response to different treatments in 158 patients (61% women) with HFS evaluated at our Movement Disorders Clinic. The mean age at onset was 48.5+/-14.1 years (range: 15-87) and the mean duration of symptoms was 11.4+/-8.5 (range: 0.5-53) years. The left side was affected in 56% instances; 5 patients had bilateral HFS. The lower lid was the most common site of the initial involvement followed by cheek and perioral region. Involuntary eye closure which interfered with vision and social embarrassment were the most common complaints. HFS was associated with trigeminal neuralgia in 5.1% of the cases and 5.7% had prior history of Bell's palsy. Although vascular abnormalities, facial nerve injury, and intracranial tumor were responsible for symptoms in some patients, most patients had no apparent etiology. Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections, used in 110 patients, provided marked to moderate improvement in 95% of patients. Seven of the 25 (28%) patients who had microvascular decompression reported permanent complications and the HFS recurred in 5 (20%). Although occasionally troublesome, HFS is generally a benign disorder that can be treated effectively with either BTX-A or microvascular decompression.
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            Concerning the mechanism of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm.

            R. Gardner (1962)
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              Microvascular decompression for treating hemifacial spasm: lessons learned from a prospective study of 1,174 operations.

              The authors critically analyzed a large series of patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) and who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) under a prospective protocol. We describe several "lessons learned" that are required for achieving successful surgery and proper postoperative management. The purpose of this study is to report on our experience during the previous 10 years with this procedure and we also discuss various related topics. From April 1997 to June 2009, over 1,200 consecutive patients underwent MVD for HFS. Among them, 1,174 patients who underwent MVD for HFS with a minimum 1 year follow-up were enrolled in the study. The median follow-up period was 3.5 years (range, 1-9.3 years). Based on the operative and medical records, the intraoperative findings and the postoperative outcomes were obtained and then analyzed. At the 1-year follow-up examination, 1,105 (94.1%) patients of the total 1,174 patients exhibited a "cured" state, and 69 (5.9%) patients had residual spasms. In all the patients, the major postoperative complications included transient hearing loss in 31 (2.6%), permanent hearing loss in 13 (1.1%), transient facial weakness in 86 (7.3%), permanent facial weakness in 9 (0.7%), cerebrospinal fluid leak in three (0.25%) and cerebellar infarction or hemorrhage in two (0.17%). There were no operative deaths. Microvascular decompression is a very effective, safe modality of treatment for hemifacial spasm. MVD is not sophisticated surgery, but having a basic understanding of the surgical procedures is required to achieve successful surgery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ENE
                Eur Neurol
                10.1159/issn.0014-3022
                European Neurology
                S. Karger AG
                0014-3022
                1421-9913
                2013
                October 2013
                06 August 2013
                : 70
                : 3-4
                : 165-171
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNeurology and bNeurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, cDepartment of Neurology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, and dDepartment of Neurology, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                *Jin Whan Cho, MD, PhD, Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Irwon-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-710 (Republic of Korea), E-Mail jinwhan.cho@samsung.com
                Article
                351266 Eur Neurol 2013;70:165-171
                10.1159/000351266
                23921578
                35dab870-874e-4338-be2b-f263489a537c
                © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Geriatric medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Neurosciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
                Hemifacial spasm,Microvascular decompression,Efficacy,Elderly,Safety

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