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Serum electrolytes are associated with markers of neural damage in transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients

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      Abstract

      Abstract. Objective: The objective of the study is investigation of serum electrolytes in 16 transient ischemic attack (TIA) and 16 acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and analysis of association between these parameters and stroke biomarkers. Materials: 16 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum samples were examined for complement components C4 and C3a, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), S100B protein, and NR2 antibodies (NR2Ab). Serum Ca and Mg concentrations were assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry whereas K + , Na + , and Cl - levels were estimated using ion-selective electrodes. Results: TIA and AIS patients were characterized by significantly increased stroke markers in serum. The mean group values of serum electrolytes were within the normal range. At the same time, the level of Cl - in serum of TIA and AIS patients were 4% higher than the control values. Oppositely, Ca content in patients with TIA and AIS was 9 and 10% lower than the respective control values. The overall tendency was significant in both cases (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007). Serum Cl - level directly correlated with C4 (r = 0.502; p < 0.001), VEGF (r = 0.489; p < 0.001), S100 (r = 0.582; p < 0.001), and NR2Ab (r = 0.589; p < 0.001), whereas Ca was inversely associated with C4 (r = –0.330; p = 0.022) and NR2Ab (r = –0.367; p = 0.010). Despite the absence of significant group difference, serum Na also directly correlated with all studied stroke markers. The results of the study demonstrate a significant alteration of serum Ca and Cl - levels in patients with TIA and AIS and the association between these parameters and brain damage biomarkers.


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      Most cited references 7

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      Copper and carcinogenesis.

      Metal ions play an important role in biological systems, and without their catalytic presence in trace or ultratrace amounts many essential co-factors for many biochemical reactions would not take place. However, they become toxic to cells when their concentrations surpass certain optimal (natural) levels. Copper is an essential metal. Catalytic copper, because of its mobilization and redox activity, is believed to play a central role in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O2-* and *OH radicals, that bind very fast to DNA, and produce damage by breaking the DNA strands or modifying the bases and/or deoxyribose leading to carcinogenesis. The chemistry and biochemistry of copper is briefly accounted together with its involvement in cancer and other diseases.
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        Serum ceruloplasmin and copper levels in patients with primary brain tumors.

        Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels are known to increase in several malignancies such as osteosarcomas, some gastrointestinal tumors, and lung cancer. In this study serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels in 40 patients with primary brain tumors were studied. Both parameters were increased in sera of patients with tumors in comparison with healthy subjects or patients with non-tumorous neurological diseases. It is concluded that copper and ceruloplasmin represent a good complement to some other nonspecific parameters in evaluating the activity of malignancy and the therapeutic results.
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          Interleukin 7 is produced by murine and human keratinocytes

          Interleukin 7 (IL-7) was originally identified as a growth factor for B cell progenitors, and subsequently has been shown to exert proliferative effects on T cell progenitors and mature peripheral T cells as well. Constitutive IL-7 mRNA expression so far had been demonstrated in bone marrow stromal cell lines, thymus, spleen, and among nonlymphoid tissues in liver and kidney. Here we show that both murine and human keratinocytes express IL-7 mRNA and release IL-7 protein in biologically relevant amounts. The physiological or pathological relevance of keratinocyte-derived IL-7 is presently unknown. Our finding that keratinocytes can produce IL-7 in concert with reports that IL-7 is a growth factor for in vivo primed antigen- specific T cells, as well as for T lymphoma cells suggests, however, that keratinocyte-derived IL-7 is important in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous T cell lymphoma.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Trace Elements and Electrolytes
            TE
            Dustri-Verlgag Dr. Karl Feistle
            0946-2104
            September 26 2016
            10.5414/TEX01451
            © 2016
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