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      The brain basis of emotion: A meta-analytic review

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          Abstract

          Researchers have wondered how the brain creates emotions since the early days of psychological science. With a surge of studies in affective neuroscience in recent decades, scientists are poised to answer this question. In this target article, we present a meta-analytic summary of the neuroimaging literature on human emotion. We compare the locationist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories consistently and specifically correspond to distinct brain regions) with the psychological constructionist approach (i.e., the hypothesis that discrete emotion categories are constructed of more general brain networks not specific to those categories) to better understand the brain basis of emotion. We review both locationist and psychological constructionist hypotheses of brain–emotion correspondence and report meta-analytic findings bearing on these hypotheses. Overall, we found little evidence that discrete emotion categories can be consistently and specifically localized to distinct brain regions. Instead, we found evidence that is consistent with a psychological constructionist approach to the mind: A set of interacting brain regions commonly involved in basic psychological operations of both an emotional and non-emotional nature are active during emotion experience and perception across a range of discrete emotion categories.

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          Most cited references 253

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          Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex.

          The functional architecture of the object vision pathway in the human brain was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure patterns of response in ventral temporal cortex while subjects viewed faces, cats, five categories of man-made objects, and nonsense pictures. A distinct pattern of response was found for each stimulus category. The distinctiveness of the response to a given category was not due simply to the regions that responded maximally to that category, because the category being viewed also could be identified on the basis of the pattern of response when those regions were excluded from the analysis. Patterns of response that discriminated among all categories were found even within cortical regions that responded maximally to only one category. These results indicate that the representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex are widely distributed and overlapping.
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            Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion.

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              Pain and emotion interactions in subregions of the cingulate gyrus.

               Brent Vogt (2005)
              Acute pain and emotion are processed in two forebrain networks, and the cingulate cortex is involved in both. Although Brodmann's cingulate gyrus had two divisions and was not based on any functional criteria, functional imaging studies still use this model. However, recent cytoarchitectural studies of the cingulate gyrus support a four-region model, with subregions, that is based on connections and qualitatively unique functions. Although the activity evoked by pain and emotion has been widely reported, some view them as emergent products of the brain rather than of small aggregates of neurons. Here, we assess pain and emotion in each cingulate subregion, and assess whether pain is co-localized with negative affect. Amazingly, these activation patterns do not simply overlap.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Behavioral and Brain Sciences
                Behav Brain Sci
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0140-525X
                1469-1825
                June 2012
                May 23 2012
                June 2012
                : 35
                : 3
                : 121-143
                Article
                10.1017/S0140525X11000446
                4329228
                22617651
                © 2012

                https://www.cambridge.org/core/terms

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