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      Established risk factors for addiction fail to discriminate between healthy gamers and gamers endorsing DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence supporting their validity remains scarce. This study compared online gamers who do or do not endorse IGD criteria regarding self-control-related abilities (impulsivity, inhibitory control, and decision-making), considered the hallmarks of addictive behaviors.

          Method

          A double approach was adopted to distinguish pathological from recreational gamers: The first is the classic DSM-5 approach (≥5 criteria required to endorse the IGD diagnosis), and the second consists in using latent class analysis (LCA) for IGD criteria to distinguish gamers’ subgroups. We computed comparisons separately for each approach. Ninety-seven volunteer gamers from the community were recruited. Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure demographic- and game-related characteristics, problematic online gaming (with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire), impulsivity (with the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale), and depression (with the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Experimental tasks were used to measure inhibitory control (Hybrid-Stop Task) and decision-making abilities (Game of Dice Task).

          Results

          Thirty-two participants met IGD criteria (33% of the sample), whereas LCA identified two groups of gamers [pathological (35%) and recreational]. Comparisons that used both approaches (DSM-5 and LCA) failed to identify significant differences regarding all constructs except for variables related to actual or problematic gaming behaviors.

          Discussion

          The validity of IGD criteria is questioned, mostly with respect to their relevance in distinguishing high engagement from pathological involvement in video games.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in addiction: neuroimaging findings and clinical implications.

          The loss of control over drug intake that occurs in addiction was initially believed to result from disruption of subcortical reward circuits. However, imaging studies in addictive behaviours have identified a key involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) both through its regulation of limbic reward regions and its involvement in higher-order executive function (for example, self-control, salience attribution and awareness). This Review focuses on functional neuroimaging studies conducted in the past decade that have expanded our understanding of the involvement of the PFC in drug addiction. Disruption of the PFC in addiction underlies not only compulsive drug taking but also accounts for the disadvantageous behaviours that are associated with addiction and the erosion of free will.
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            An international consensus for assessing internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach.

            For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition. We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5. We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted. Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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              Internet gaming disorder and the DSM-5.

               N Petry,  C. O’Brien (2013)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                10 November 2017
                December 2017
                : 6
                : 4
                : 516-524
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology (LEP), Psychological Science Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain , Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
                [ 2 ]International Gaming Research Unit, Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham, United Kingdom
                [ 3 ]Cognitive Psychopathology and Neuropsychology Unit, University of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland
                [ 4 ]Addictology Division, Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospitals , Geneva, Switzerland
                [ 5 ]Internet and Gambling Disorders Clinic, Department of Adult Psychiatry, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc , Woluwe-Saint-Lambert, Belgium
                [ 6 ]Addictive and Compulsive Lab, Institute for Health and Behaviour , University of Luxembourg , Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors: Jory Deleuze; Psychological Science Research Institute , Université catholique de Louvain, Place du Cardinal Mercier 10, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; E-mail: jory.deleuze@ 123456uclouvain.be ; Joël Billieux; Addictive and Compulsive Lab, Institute for Health and Behaviour, University of Luxembourg , Maison des Sciences Humaines 11, Porte des Sciences, L-4366 Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg; Phone: +352 46 66 44 9207; Fax: +352 46 66 44 39207; E-mail: joel.billieux@ 123456uni.lu
                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.074
                6034950
                29130328
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 62, Pages: 9
                Funding
                Funding sources: JD is funded by a Special Research Fund (FSR) from the Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium). The work of PM (Research Associate) is funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (F.R.S. -FNRS, Belgium).
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