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      Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

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          Abstract

          Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Neurosci Biobehav Rev
          Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
          1873-7528
          0149-7634
          Aug 30 2016
          : 71
          Affiliations
          [1 ] General Psychology: Cognition and Center for Behavioral Addiction Research (CeBAR), University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen, Germany. Electronic address: matthias.brand@uni-due.de.
          [2 ] Center for Internet Addiction, Russell J. Jandoli School of Journalism and Mass Communication, St. Bonaventure University, Olean, USA.
          [3 ] General Psychology: Cognition and Center for Behavioral Addiction Research (CeBAR), University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
          [4 ] Outpatient Clinic for Behavioral Addiction, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.
          [5 ] Departments of Psychiatry, Neuroscience and Child Study, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA; National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA; Connecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven, USA.
          Article
          S0149-7634(16)30262-7
          10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.033
          27590829
          847547d3-d628-46e4-8087-bebfc7a82ec7
          Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
          History

          Cue-reactivity,Executive functions,Inhibitory control,Internet addiction,Internet-gaming disorder,Internet-use disorders

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